Iram is an ancient Arabian name most commonly associated in modern writing with a lost city in southeastern Arabia, the capital of the pre-Islamic people of ʿĀd, whom God destroyed for their disbelief (Cobb, 2:559; Clapp). The meaning of “Iram” has, however, undergone a complex evolution of varied and debated interpretations in both Muslim and European narratives.
Pre-Islamic Nabatean epigraphy uses ʾrm as a toponym in northwestern Arabia (…
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Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson.
Consulted online on 13 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_32509>