Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Adoption (tabannī) was a recognized practice in pre-Islamic Arabia, with Muḥammad, prior to his prophetic mission, himself having reportedly adopted his freedman, Zayd ibn Ḥāritha, who consequently became known as Zayd b. Muḥammad. Q 33:4-6, however, abrogated this pre-Islamic custom, dissolved the fictive ties of kinship (al-muʾākhāt) that the Prophet Muḥammad had established between the Meccan immigrants to Medina and the Medinans upon his arrival there, and recognized ties of fictive kinship between the Prophet’s wives and the Muslim community by declaring them…

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Muhammad Fadel, “Adoption”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC. Consulted online on 22 October 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_050573>
First published online: 2017

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