Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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The inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople. The Byzantines ( al-Rūm, lit. “the Romans”) are named in the Qurʾān only in Sūrat al-Rūm, q 30:1-5: “The Byzantines have been defeated (ghulibati l-Rūm) in a nearby land, but after their defeat they will prevail (sa-yaghlibūna) within a few years…. On that day the believers will rejoice.” An alternate reading going back to several early authorities, including Ibn ʿUmar (d. 73/693), reverses the voice of the …

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Bonner, Michael and El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria, “Byzantines”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC. Consulted online on 27 October 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00028>

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