Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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(2,712 words)

Emotion marked by alarm; dread; reverence or awe. Three principal qurʾānic concepts are usually translated by the English word “fear.” In their most common nominal forms these concepts are: (a) taqwā and related derivatives, probably from the trilit- eral Arabic root w-q-y (or t-q-w or t-q-y; see below for a brief discussion of the possible root letters) attested 239 times; (b) khawf and related derivatives from kh-w-f, attested 123 times; and (c) khashya and related derivati…

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Alexander, Scott C., “Fear”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC. Consulted online on 16 July 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00064>

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