Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Witness to Faith
(2,338 words)

Arabic shahāda, i.e. the statement “I testify that there is no god but God and I testify that Muḥammad is the messenger of God,” ashhadu an lā ilāha illā llāh wa-ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūlu llāh. The utterance of the statement in Arabic is required of all Muslims to signify acceptance of Islam and thus it must be said at least once, w…

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Rippin, Andrew, “Witness to Faith”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC. Consulted online on 04 June 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00217>

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