Agriculture and Forestry, sciences of
(799 words)

In 1990 the Directory of Chinese Learned Organizations listed altogether 375 research institutes, universities, institutions of higher education, societies, and associations which are occupied with the sciences of agriculture and forestry in the PRC today. The reforms of the 1890s (Reform Movement of 1898) led to the first concrete measures towards agricultural modernization in line with Western or Japanese standards of knowledge. In 1899 the state gave permission for the first study-abroad programs in Japan, Europe, and the USA (students abroad). Initially the authorities …

Cite this page
Kolb, Raimund Th., “Agriculture and Forestry, sciences of”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of China, Managing Editor English Edition: Daniel Leese. Consulted online on 22 July 2017
First published online: 2008
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004168633, 20121018



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