Chinese Loanwords in Mongolic, Turkic and Manchu-Tungusic
(1,755 words)

Contacts of Chinese speakers with their Northern neighbors have a long history, going back at least to the Western Hàn period. Most ancient contacts are reflected in Proto-Turkic (PT) loanwords from Late Old Chinese (LOC, 1st cent. BCE – 4-5th cent. CE) and are mainly restricted to such semantic fields as metal names, writing, warcraft, bureaucracy and luxury items. According to Dybo (2007:66), there are few Chinese loanwords which had entered Proto-Turkic, i.e., their reflexes are found in both Common Turkic and the Bulgar sub…

Cite this page
İlya GRUNTOV, “Chinese Loanwords in Mongolic, Turkic and Manchu-Tungusic”, in: Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics, General Editor Rint Sybesma. Consulted online on 16 February 2019 <>
First published online: 2015

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