Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Education: Post-Secondary: Iran and Afghanistan
(1,297 words)

In Iran and Afghanistan there were few educational institutions for either men or women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially at the post-secondary level (Menashri 1992). When institutions of higher education expanded in the 1950s and 1960s, following government and international support, social norms confined women to marriage and motherhood and denied them education, especially post-secondary education. Yet women, at least …

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Aghajanian, Akbar, “Education: Post-Secondary: Iran and Afghanistan”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 15 September 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_EWICCOM_0253d>
First published online: 2009



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