Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures

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Muslim Women and Violent Political Protest: Iraqi Activists' Struggle under American Occupation
(6,129 words)

The struggle by women’s rights activists under the United States-led occupation has been waged under increasingly hard circumstances. Beyond the general lack of security, crumbling infrastructure, and increased gender-based violence that accompanied the occupation, activists encountered multiple forms of political repressions, each of them a powe…

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Noga Efrati, “Muslim Women and Violent Political Protest: Iraqi Activists' Struggle under American Occupation”, in: Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, General Editor Suad Joseph. Consulted online on 17 September 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1872-5309_ewic_COM_002002>
First published online: 2014



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