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The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs
(139 words)

These are based on Cornu maps 1, 2, 3 for the early period and TAVO for the Crusader era. Also of major importance are G. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905) and his Palestine Under the Moslems (London, 1890), both of which provide excellent surveys of the material in the Arab geographers. For the Ottoman period, the map is based on the maps in Pitcher, Ottoman Empire including a detailed list of small sanjaqs which are underlined. I have also used the map in S. H. Longrigg, Four Centuries of Modern Iraq (Oxford, 1925). The names of Arab tribes are a simplied ver…

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Kennedy, Hugh, “The Fertile Crescent Under the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid Caliphs”, in: Historical Atlas of Islam, Edited by: Hugh Kennedy. Consulted online on 18 January 2020 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_hai_HAI_20_21>
First published online: 2012
First print edition: ISBN: 9789004122352, 20011210

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