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Water

(2,839 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
The compound of oxygen and hydrogen on which every form of life depends. Of the four Heraclean elements, water has the highest number of attestations in the Qurʾān and appears in the greatest variety of forms. In its general sense, it is designated by the Arabic word māʾ. It subsists in the sky as clouds ( saḥāb, muzn, muʿṣirāt, ghamāma, ʿarḍ), falls to the earth as rain ( māʾ min al-samāʾ, wadq, maṭar), or hail ( barad; see weather ) or is condensed from the atmosphere as dew ( ṭall). It rises from within the earth as springs ( ʿayn, yanbūʿ) and is also accessible as wells ( biʾr, jubb; see spr…

Water [Supplement 2018]

(2,683 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
Water is the liquid compound of oxygen and hydrogen on which every form of life depends. Of the four Heraclean elements, water has the highest number of attestations in the Qurʾān and appears in the greatest variety of forms. In its general sense, it is designated by the Arabic word māʾ. It subsists in the sky as clouds (saḥāb, muzn, muʿṣirāt, ghamāma, ʿarḍ), falls to the earth as rain (māʾ min al-samāʾ, wadq, maṭar) or hail (barad; see weather), or is condensed from the atmosphere as dew (ṭall). It rises from within the earth as springs (ʿayn, yanbūʿ) and is also accessible as wells  (biʾr, jubb; …
Date: 2018-08-14

Air and Wind

(3,542 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
The gases which surround the earth and the motion within these gases. Air is mentioned only twice in the Qurʾān, once as jaww and once as hawāʾ. The general word for wind, rīḥ and its plural riyāḥ, occurs more than thirty times. It is supplemented by a number of terms with significantly fewer attestations denoting specific types of wind. Air Of the attestations of air, one is literal, q 16:79: “Have you not reflected on the birds set in the air (jaww) of the firmament, none holds them there other than God. In that, indeed, is a sign for those who believe,” referring to the r…

Hamka (Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah)

(1,972 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah (1908–81), known by the acronym Hamka, which he adopted as a pen name in 1936, is a prominent figure in Islam in modern Indonesia. He gained a high profile as a populist exponent of the neo-Ḥanbalī Salafism of Rashīd Riḍā (d. 1935), for his role in the reformist organisation Muhammadiyah, and as a popular author. At least two universities are named after him, and, in 2011, he was awarded posthumously, by a committee for the documentation of national history, the title of pahlawan (hero), in recognition of his contribution to the “Indonesian people and nation.” H…
Date: 2019-08-29

Faḍlallāh al-Burhānpūrī

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony H.
Muḥammad b. Faḍlallāh al-Burhānpūrī (firstly known as al-Jawnpūrī) (c. 952–1029/1545–1620) was one of several mystics from north India who studied and taught in Mecca and Medina during the second half of the tenth/sixteenth century. He is mentioned in various biographical dictionaries, some in print, others only in manuscript, among them Nuzhat al-khawāṭir (“The delight of thoughts”) and Khulāṣat al-āthār (“The essence of the Traditions”); in the former, he is said to be a descendant of Abū Bakr. He was raised in Jawnpur (a centre of mystical learning), but the nisba by which he is …
Date: 2019-08-29