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Sectarianism and Confessionalism: United States

(2,081 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula
Women from among the roughly six million Muslims living in the United States represent diverse sectarian, ethnic, cultural, educational and class backgrounds. Thus it is difficult to generalize about one gender structure in Islamic communities, or what constitutes normative roles for women, informing their self-image, religious beliefs and practices, and their relations with men. It is important to distinguish among members of any of the branches or sectarian groups of Islam between those who ar…

 Ḥurmat dhabāʾiḥ Ahl al-Kitāb

(1,770 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula
Dhabāʾiḥ Ahl al-Kitāb‘Prohibition on the consumption of meat slaughtered by the People of the Book’ Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Ḥārithī l-ʿĀmilī; Shaykh Bahāʾī Date: 1611 Original Language: Arabic Description Shah ʿAbbās I commissioned Bahāʾ al-Dīn to write this treatise. He intended to send it to the Ottoman ruler, Sultan Aḥmad (r. 1603-17), in 1611 with Khiḍr ibn Ḥusayn Māridīnī Efendi (d. 1613), an Ottoman envoy to the Safavid court, who had been instructed by the Grand Vizier Nasûh Pasha to conclude a peace tr…

Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī

(841 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Ḥārithī l-ʿĀmilī; Shaykh Bahāʾī Date of Birth: 18 February 1547 Place of Birth: Baalbek Date of Death: 1 September 1621 Place of Death: Isfahan (buried in Mashhad) Biography Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Ḥārithī l-ʿĀmilī, known as Shaykh Bahāʾī, was a leading Twelver Shīʿa polymath whose contributions span the fields of Islamic law, jurisprudence, Hadith, qur’anic commentary, mathematics, astronomy, literature and poetry. He trained no fewer than 77 scholars in the fields of theol…

al-Fāḍil al-Hindī

(748 words)

Author(s): Abisaab, Rula J.
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Iṣfahānī (d. 1137/1724–5), known as al-Fāḍil al-Hindī, was an Uṣūlī (rationalist) Twelver Shīʿī jurist or mujtahid known for his vast and authoritative legal knowledge. He lived during a time when rationalists were under attack by the Akhbārī (traditionist) jurists who dominated Ṣafavid Isfahan. It is reported that he completed the study of the manqūlāt (transmitted—i.e., scriptural—Islamic sciences) and the maʿqūlāt (rational sciences) by the age of thirteen. He spent part of his childhood and early adulthood in India, w…
Date: 2019-11-11