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Africa II: Central and Southern Africa

(2,282 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
1. Unlike Northern Africa, where Islam is the predominant religion, Africa south of the Sahara is mainly Christian. The process of the Christianization of Africa can be divided into four phases, of which the first, that of late antiquity, was limited to Northern Africa ( Africa I). Portuguese; the Catholic Mission 2. a) The second phase of Christianization—this time south of the Sahara—occurred in connection with the establishment of a Portuguese trade network, in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, on the west coast of Africa, in the Kingdom of Congo, in …

Tecumseh

(179 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[English Version] (1768 Old Piqua, OH – 15.10.1813 am Thames River, Ontario, Kanada), Angehöriger der Shawnee, gilt als polit. Führer verschiedener Indianervölker (Indianer). Im frühen 19.Jh. gelang T. die Gründung einer indianischen Konföderation. Nach einer rel. Erfahrung forderte 1805 Lalawethika, ein Bruder T.s, in seiner Lehre der kulturellen Erneuerung den Abbruch aller Kontakte mit den Amerikanern. Von 1808 an wandelte T. die rel. Bewegung in ein polit. Bündnis um und drang darauf, kollekti…

Yoruba, religionsgeschichtlich

(1,779 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[English Version] I. Allgemeiner Überblick Die Y. sind eine der größten Volksgruppen in ganz Westafrika mit mehr als 30 Mio. Angehörigen. Der überwiegende Teil lebt im Südwesten Nigerias, andere sind in Ghana, Togo, Sierra Leone, in der Republik Benin und auf beiden amer. Kontinenten ansässig. Durch den transatlantischen Sklavenhandel entstand eine Diaspora der Y., welche die Kulturen in Brasilien, Kuba, Haiti und anderen Regionen der Neuen Welt stark beeinflußte. Teilweise entwickelten sich auch ne…

Zulu

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[English Version] Zulu, religionsgeschichtlich I. Allgemeiner Überblick Die Z. sind ein Nguni-Volk, das hauptsächlich in der Provinz KwaZulu-Natal der Republik Südafrika lebt und mit ca.9 Mio. Menschen den größten Teil der schwarzen Bevölkerung des Landes stellt. In kultureller, ethnischer und sprachlicher Hinsicht stehen die Z. den Xhosa und den Swazi sehr nahe. Zu Beginn des 19.Jh. vereinte der Anführer Shaka (ca.1787–1828) durch neue Techniken der Kriegsführung und eine expansive Eroberungspolitik mehrere Nguni-Völker, so daß er eine mächtige Zulunation formte. II. Ko…

Nigerianische Missionen

(272 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[English Version] . Die erste Phase der Mission in Nigeria bestand seit dem 15.Jh. aus sporadischen und fruchtlosen Versuchen der Portugiesen, in Benin und Warri Fuß zu fassen. Das Jahr der ersten Nigerexpedition, 1841, markiert den Beginn der Bewegung zur Wiedererrichtung des Christentums und das Jahr 1891 steht für das Ende der ersten Phase dieses Neubeginns (S.A. Crowther). Folgende in der Missionsarbeit tätige Kirchen waren daran beteiligt: Anglikaner, Methodisten, Presbyterianer, Baptisten un…

Poro/Bundu

(1,654 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[English Version] . P. und B. (Sande) sind männliche bzw. weibliche Geheimbünde/Geheimgesellschaften in Sierra Leone und Liberia. Beide Bünde sind bei einer Reihe von Ethnien vertreten, darunter die Mende, Temne, Sherbro, Vai und die Lokko. I. Der P. ist der älteste Bund bei den Mende; als Hauptaufgabe kommt ihm die Ausbildung und Erziehung der Heranwachsenden zu. Die Initiation in den P. ist für Männer verpflichtend; die hiermit verbundenen Rituale symbolisieren den Übergang von der Kindheit ins Erwachsenenalter (Rites de passag…

Tecumseh

(185 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] (1768, Old Piqua, OK – Oct 15, 1813, at the Thames river, Ontario, Canada), Shawnee Indian political leader of various Indian tribes (Native American Indians). By the early 1800s, Tecumseh formed an Indian confederacy. In 1805, Tecumseh’s brother, Lalawethika, sustained a religious experience and laid claims to a revitalization doctrine enjoining Shawnees to relinquish contacts with Americans. By 1808, Tecumseh began to transform the religious movement into a political alliance, u…

Aladura

(384 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] A group of churches that emerged in Yoruba (Niger) from the 1920s onwards. It includes the “Christian Apostolic Church” (CAC), “Cherubim and Seraphim” C&S, “ Church of the Lord (Aladura)” CLA, “ Celestial Church of Christ” CCC, “Evangelical Church of Yahweh,” and their various sub-groups …

Poro and Bundu Societies

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] The Poro and Bundu (Sande) are male and female secret societies in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Both societies have spread among various ethnic groups such as the Mende, Temne, Sherbro, Vai, and the Lokko. I.  The Poro is the oldest society among the Mende; its main task is to train adolescents. Initiation is mandatory for males and the associated rituals symbolize the transition from childhood into adulthood (Rites of passage). Initiation takes place in the dry season between November and May, a period when several …

Nigerian Missions

(277 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] The earliest mission phase in Nigeria was the sporadic, futile attempts by the Portuguese in Benin and Warri from the 15th century. 1841, the year of the first Niger expedition, marked the genesis of the movement to reestablish Christianity; and ¶ 1891 marked the end of the first phase of this new attempt (S.A. Crowther). Societies engaged in mission work during this era were: the Anglicans, Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and Catholics. The success of this phase was significantly associated with the creation and th…

Zulu

(1,531 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] I. General Overview The Zulu are a Nguni people who live mainly in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. They form the largest black population of the country, numbering around nine million. They have close cultural, ethnic, and linguistic affinities with the Xhosa and the Swazi. In the early 19th century, Chief Shaka (c. 1787–1828) united various Nguni peoples through new techniques of warfare and expansive conquest, thus forming a powerful Zulu nation. II. Cosmology and Beliefs Zulu religious thought and practice is complex. It is intricately tied …

Yoruba

(1,868 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] I. General Overview The Yoruba are one of the major ethnic groups numbering over 30 million people throughout the West Africa region. The larger group of the Yoruba lives in southwestern Nigeria, while others are located in Ghana, Togo, Sierra Leone, the Republic of Benin, and in the ¶ Americas. Yoruba Diaspora, resulting from the transatlantic slave trade, profoundly influenced the cultures of Brazil, Cuba, Haiti, and other parts of the New World. This partly led to the development of Yoruba-derived religions such as the Santer…

Benin

(495 words)

Author(s): Adogame, Afe
[German Version] The modern city of Benin represents, as the former royal capital, the nucleus of the kingdom of Benin and is inhabited by Edo-speaking peoples – the Bini, Ishan, Ivbiosakon, Afenmai, Isoko, and Urhobo. Their territory extends from the Kukuruku hills in the north, to the southern fringes of the coastal mangrove forest, and is bounded in the west and …