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Abāqā

(4,755 words)

Author(s): Amitai, Reuven
Abāqā (d. 681/1282) was the eldest son of Hülegü Khān and succeeded him in 663/1265, being the second ruler of the Mongol Īlkhānid dynasty in Iran and the surrounding countries. His name is derived from the Mongol abaγa (“paternal uncle”) and is usually rendered “Abaghā” or “Abāqā” in Arabic and Persian. In his long reign, Abāqā was responsible for the ongoing institutionalisation of the Īlkhānate, its relative internal stability and prosperity, and an active, even aggressive policy vis-à-vis other Mongol states and the Mamlūks to …
Date: 2019-11-11

ʿAyn Jālūt

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Amitai, Reuven
ʿAyn Jālūt, “the Spring of Goliath,” in northern Palestine, is the name given to an important battle in which the Mamlūks defeated the Mongols in 658/1260. ʿAyn Jālūt is located in the Esdraelon Valley (Marj Banī ʿĀmir), north of the Gilboa Mountains (Jabal Faqqūʿa), known in Hebrew as Maʿayan Ḥarōd (Judges 7). Two important battles in the late Middle Ages were fought in the area: (1) The Franks successfully held off Salāḥ al-Dīn there in the fall of 580/1184; and (2) the Mamlūks defeated the Mon…
Date: 2019-11-11

Akhījūq

(728 words)

Author(s): Amitai, Reuven
Akhījūq (d. 760/1359), or “little akhī” was the apparent epithet of a Turco-Mongol officer who ruled twice, briefly, in Azerbaijan, in the post-Īlkhānid period. His real name is unknown; the possibility, however, that Akhījūq was his proper name should not be discounted. He was active in Tabriz and the surrounding area and held power there until his execution in 760/1359. He appears first as a follower of the Çūbānid Malik Ashraf, the erstwhile ruler of Tabriz who was defeated and executed in 758/1357 by the khān of the Golden Horde, Jānī Beg. The latter advanced to Tabriz, but …
Date: 2019-11-11