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Yūḥannā ibn Sawīrus

(634 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
Yūḥannā ibn Sūrus, Yūḥannā ibn Sawirus, Al-kātib al-Miṣrī Date of Birth: Unknown; end of the 11th or beginning of the 12th century Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: Unknown; perhaps the last decade of the 12th century Place of Death: Cairo Biography The name of the author in MS Vat Arabic 117 is Yūḥannā ibn Sawirus (or Sūrus). In the MSS of Abū l-Barakāt’s Miṣbaḥ al-ẓulma, ch. 7, various forms are found: Sawirus or Sūrus, Sūrīs, Sawīrus, or Sāwīrus. In other sources the form Sāwīrus occurs. Cheikho places the author in the 12th century, and Graf in the 14th, though a reading of the author’…

 Risālat al-bayān al-aẓhar fī l-radd ʿalā man yaqūl bi-l-qaḍāʾ wa-al-qadar

(316 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
Risāla fī l-radd ʿalā man yaqūl bi-l-qaḍāʾ wa-l-qadar'A treatise of the most manifest elucidation in refutation of those who teach divine predestination and decree', 'A treatise in refutation of those who teach divine predestination and decree' Al-Rashīd Abū l-Khayr ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Before 1265 Original Language: Arabic Description The fact that this treatise is extensively reproduced in ch. 56 of the Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn of al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl (q.v.) indicates that it was written before 1265. In it Abū al-Khayr presents the arguments of those who cl…

 Miṣbāḥ al-ẓulma wa-īḍāḥ al-khidma

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
'A lamp in the darkness and illumination of service' Al-Shams ibn Kabar Date: Probably after 1293 and before 1314 Original Language: Arabic Description The work consists of an introduction and 24 chapters of varying length. Chs 1 and 2 are theological, based on previous authors such as Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī (q.v.), al-Ṣafī ibn al-ʿAssāl (q.v.) and al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl (q.v.), who are not named, and Severus ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (q.v.), who is. Ch. 3 is on the story of Christ, ch. 4 on the apostles, ch. 5 on canonical themes, …

Michael, Bishop of Atrīb and Malīj

(357 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
Biography Mīkhāʾīl’s full name is not known, and this creates a problem for the identification of the writings attributed to him. All that is known is that he had discussions with a Muslim jurist in Alexandria in April or May 1246 and in August 1247. A few years earlier, in 1242/3, he had begun writing his treatises. Later, sometime after 1250, he became bishop of Atrīb andMalīj, succeeding Buṭrus al-Jamīl and joining the two dioceses together. He must have died before 1300. Various works are attributed to Mīkhāʾīl, but only the one called Aqwāl (‘Sayings’) is definitely by him. The att…

 Al-ṣaḥāʾiḥ fī jawāb al-Naṣāʾiḥ

(668 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
'The truths in response to The advice' Al-Ṣafī ibn al-ʿAssāl Date: Between 1238 and 1243; perhaps shortly after 1238 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-ṣaḥāʾiḥ, which is also known as Al-ṣaḥāʾiḥ fī l-radd ʿalā l-Naṣāʾiḥ (‘The truths in refutation of The advice’, implying that the Muslim original bore the title Al-naṣāʾiḥ), and simply Al-ṣaḥāʾiḥ al-Ṣafawiyya (‘The truths of al-Ṣafī’), is a response to a Muslim refutation of Christian beliefs. Al-Ṣafī does not name his opponent, saying only that he was a Christian who had become a Muslim at the age of 70 (ed. Jirjis, p. 35), though in N…

Al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl

(734 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
Al-Muʾtaman Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn al-ʿAssāl Date of Birth: Unknown; first quarter of the 13th century Place of Birth: Cairo Date of Death: Between 1270 and 1286 Place of Death: Cairo Biography Al-Muʾtaman Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn al-ʿAssāl was half-brother to al-Ṣafī (q.v.) and al-Asʿad, and evidently a son of his father’s second marriage. He was a married priest in the Coptic Church. He received news of his wife’s death when he was away from Cairo, probably in Damascus. He travelled to this city on a number of occasions between about 1237 and 1260, and in 1260 he lost his li…

 Maqāla tanfī l-shakk wa-l-kufr ʿan al-Naṣārā l-muwaḥḥidīn

(239 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
'Treatise denying doubt and unbelief on the part of Christians, believers in divine unity' Buṭrus al-Sadamantī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description In the only known manuscript this treatise is anonymous, so there must be some reservations about its attribution to Buṭrus. In addition, it should be noted that, while the same topics are covered in the Maqāla fī l-iʿtiqād, the terms employed are different.   The intention of the treatise is clearly apologetic. It deals with the Trinity and the divinity of Christ, the two doctrines most questioned b…

 Al-tabyīn baʿd al-shakk

(78 words)

Author(s): Awad, Wadi
'Demonstration after doubt’ Yūḥannā ibn Sawīrus Date: Unknown; after 1189 Original Language: Arabic Description This lost work is known only from the colophon of MS Vat Ar. 117. From the title it seems that it was theological and apologetic in character. Significance Nothing can be said without more information about the work’s contents. Manuscripts - Editions & Translations - Studies - Keywords Chronological Category: 1100-1200 Genre & Source Type: Apologies Christians: Copts Wadi Awad
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