(p.), the name for Muslim rulers, especially emperors. The Persian term
pād-i s̲h̲āh , i.e. (according to M. Bittner, in E. Oberhummer,
Die Türken und das Osmanische Reich , Leipzig 1917, 105) “lord who is a royalty” in which the root
pad is connected with Sanskrit
patis , lord, husband, fern,
patni , Greek πότνια and δεσ-πότης, Lat.
potens (G. Curtius,
Etymol ., 377), was originally a title reserved exclusively for the sovereign, which in course of time and as a result of the long intercourse of the Ottomans with the states of…