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Merzifūn

(514 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, also called Mārsiwān, a town in the Anatolian wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] and in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia [q. v.] at the beginning of the fertile plain of Ṣulu Owa, with 11,334 inhabitants (in 1927), of whom the Armenians have had to migrate, which produces a good deal of wine and makes some cotton. Merzifūn before the World War was the centre of activity of the Protestant missions in this region and contained the Anatolia College. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis; the name is probably a development of Φαζημών. Ibn Bībī (cf. Rec…

Mersīna

(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Anatolian sea-port on the south coast of Asia Minor. Mersīna, the port and capital of the former sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name (with an area of 1,780 sq. m.) in the wilāyet of Adana [q. v.] on the south coast of Anatolia, is 40 miles from Adana, to which a railway runs. The name Mersīna comes from the Greek myrsíni (μυρσίνη), myrtle, because this tree grows in large numbers in this region. The regularly built town, founded only in 1832, with about 21,171 inhabitants (1927) is only of importance as a port for the export of silk, corn and cotton. The clim…

Midḥat Pas̲h̲a

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman statesman, twice grand vizier. Midḥat Pas̲h̲a was born in Stambul in Ṣafar 1238 (beg. Oct. 18, 1822), the son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Efendi-Zāde Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥāfiẓ Meḥemmed Es̲h̲ref Efendi, a native of Rus̲h̲čuk The family seem to have been professed Bektas̲h̲īs and Midḥat Pas̲h̲a also had a leaning towards them. His earliest youth was spent in his parents’ home at Widdin, Lofča (Bulgaria) and later in Stambul, where his father held judicial offices. In 1836 he was working in the secretariat of …

Ḳalpaḳ

(726 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
(t.), A Central Asian headdress, which was introduced by the Turks into Europe and became widely distributed there. The word ḳalpaḳ is found in the most diverse Turkish dialects in meanings which are detailed by W. Radloff in his Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türkdialekte, ii. 268 sq. (cf. also ḳalabaḳ, ii. 234). The Eastern Turkish tilpäk, Djag. East. Turk, tälpäk, Kirg. and Karakirg. telpäk, meaning cap, felt cap (cf. also the French talpack) is certainly related. Cf. thereon Pavet de Courteille, Dict. turk-oriental, p. 408). In its original form the ḳalpaḳ is a cone-shape…

Mentes̲h̲e-Og̲h̲lulari̊

(712 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a petty dynasty in Anatolia. The princes of Mentes̲h̲e first appear in history after the break up of the Seld̲j̲ūk empire. The founder of the family is said to have been a certain Mentes̲h̲e Beg b. Behāʾ al-Dīn Kurdī. He had his court at Mīlās (Mylasa) in the ancient Caria, and not far from it his stronghold Paičīn (Petsona). His descendants also lived in Mīlās until they moved their court to Miletus. The son of Mentes̲h̲e was Urk̲h̲ān Beg, who is known from an inscription on a building in Mīlās and from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa who visited him in 1334 in Mīlās (cf. Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Voyages, ed. Defrémery, Paris …

Mīk̲h̲āl-og̲h̲lu

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an old Ottoman noble family. This family traces its descent to the feudal lord Köse Mīk̲h̲āl ʿAbd Allāh, originally a Greek (cf. F.-A. Geuffroy in Ch. Schefer, Petit traicte de l’origine des Tureqz par Th. Spandouyn Cantacasin, Paris 1696, p. 267: L’ung desdictz Grecz estoit nommé Michali…. Dudict Michali sont descendus les Michalogli), who appears in the reign of ʿOt̲h̲mān I as lord of Chirmenkia (Ḵh̲irmend̲j̲ik) at the foot of Olympus near Edrenos, and later as an ally of the first Ottoman ruler earned great merit for his share in aiding the latter’s expansion (cf. J. v. Hammer, in G.O.R.,…

Mihr-i Māh Sulṭān

(443 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Mihr-i Māh (sometimes also written Mihr-u-māh: cf. Ḳaračelebizāde, Rawḍat ul-Ebrār, p. 458) was the only daughter of Suleimān the Magnificent [q. v., as well as F. Babinger, in Meister der Politik, ii.2, Berlin 1923, p. 39—63]. While still quite young she was married to the grand vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, G. O. W., p. 81 sq.) in the beginning of December 1539 (cf. J. H. Mordtmann, in M. S. O. S., Year xxxii., Part 2, p. 37), but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. She used her enormous wealth — St. Ger…

Mezzomorto

(564 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Admiral whose real name was Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥusein Pas̲h̲a, known as Mezzomorto, i. e. “half-dead” because he was severely wounded in a naval battle, came from the Balearic Islands, if A. de la Motraye’s statement ( Voyages, The Hague 1727, i. 206) that he was born in Mallorca is right. He probably spent his youth sailing with corsairs on the seas off the North African coast. He first appears as a desperate pirate in the summer of 1682 in the Barbary States. When France was preparing to deal a …

Merkez

(320 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā, an Ottoman S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of an Order and Saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭafā b. Ḳilid̲j̲ b. Ḥad̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikīya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwetī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbülīya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwetīya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a in Stambul (cf. on him: Brūsali̊ Meḥemmed Ṭāhir, Ot̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri̊, i. 78 sq.). When the latter died in 936 (1529), Merke…

Mentes̲h̲e-eli

(218 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, a little principality in Anatolia. The boundaries of the territory of the Mentes̲h̲e-og̲h̲lu’s [q. v.] are given by Müned̲j̲d̲j̲im-bas̲h̲i̊ (cf. Fr. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 234 sq.) in his Ṣaḥāʾif al-Ak̲h̲bār (Stambul 1285) as marked by Mug̲h̲la, Balāṭ, Boz-Üyük, Mīlās, Bard̲j̲īn, Marīn, Čīne, Ṭawās, Bornāz, Makrī, Göd̲j̲iñiz, Foča and Mermere. They thus correspond approximately to those of the ancient Caria. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it can confidently be asserted that the opinion, presumably first put forward by F. Meninski ( Lexicon, iv. 737) and till quite rec…