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(701 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the greatest satirist of the Ottomans. ʿOmar Efendi whose nom de plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ) was Nefʿī came from the village of Ḥasan Ḳalʿa near Erzerūm (Eastern Anatolia). Not much is known of his early life. He spent his early years in Erzerūm where the historian ʿĀlī [q. v.], who was a defterdār there, became acquainted with him. During the reign of Aḥmad I fate brought him to the capital Stambul where he worked for a time as a book-keeper. He failed in an attempt to gain the sulṭān’s favour or that of his son, the unfortunate ʿOt̲h̲mān II, with some…


(561 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name of three Ottoman princes. Its origin like that of most old Ottman names (cf. Bali, Ṣalti̊ḳ etc.) has not been satisfactorily explained: cf., however, W. Radloff, Wörterb. der Türkdial, iv. 431, and Rieu, Cat. of Turk. Mss., p. 272b, according to whom it means “Prophet”. 1) Sawd̲j̲ī Beg, in the old Ottman chronicles also called Ṣari̊ yati̊ or Ṣari̊ bali, was one of the younger brothers of ʿOsmān, the founder of the Ottman dynasty, and a son of Ertog̲h̲rul. He supported his brother on his campaigns and fell (684 = 1285/86 is the date given) in bat…


(351 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, is the mak̲h̲laṣ of the historian, whose work was until 1925 known only from the references in ʿĀlī’s [q. v.] Künh ül-Ak̲h̲bār and in Müned̲j̲d̲j̲imbas̲h̲i [q. v.]. J. H. Mordtmann ( M. O. G. ii., 129 sqq.) was the first to identify by conclusive arguments several manuscripts of the anonymous original work. They tell us practically nothing about the personality of the author and it is only a hypothesis (cf. F. Babinger Die frühosmanischen Jahrbücher des Urudsch, Hanover 1925, p. xiii.) that connects the historian Rūḥī with a certain Rūḥī Fāḍil Efendi who, like Muḥyī al…

Pīrī Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Reʾīs

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ottoman navigator and cartographer, was probably of Christian (Greek) origin and is described as nephew of the famous corsair Kemāl Reʾīs (on the latter see the Bonn dissertation by Hans-Albrecht von Burski, Kemal Reʾis ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der türkischen Flotte, Bonn 1928 and especially J. H. Mordtmann, Zur Lebensgeschichte des Kemāl Reʾīs, in M. S. O. S., xxxii., part 2, Berlin 1929, p. 39—49 and p. 231 sq.), who was probably a renegade. His father is said to have been a certain Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Meḥmed, while he himself in the preface to his sailing-book cal…


(541 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
a dynasty in Anatolia, which ruled over Teke-eli [q. v.]. The origin of the Teke-og̲h̲lu has not yet been elucidated. It is more than probable that they ¶ are connected with the Teke Turkomans just as the Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳādir-og̲h̲lu [q. v.] are presumably to be connected with the Ṭorg̲h̲udlus (cf. Islām, xii. 102). The history of the Turkoman tribes scattered over Asia Minor who included also the Warsaḳ (the ΒαρσάκιδεΣ of Chalkondyles, p. 243) is wrapped in obscurity. As to the Teke Turkomans, they are known to have frequently changed their place of settlement (cf. J. v. Karabaček, Zur or. Altertu…


(502 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Muṣṭafā, a Turkish historian. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm known as Naʿīmā was born in 1065 (1655) in Aleppo. After becoming a teberdār (halberdier) in 1100 (beg. Oct. 26, 1688) in the imperial palace, he was promoted to be a secretary in the Dīwān under the grand vizier Ḳalāʾiliḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a. On the 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1116 (Nov. 28, 1704) he became chief accountant of Anatolia and in 1121 (1709) succeeded Niʿmetī as master of ceremonies and imperial historian ( weḳāʾiʿ nuwīs; q. v.). He later filled several other offices (cf. F. Babinger, G.O.W., p. 245) and during the campaign in the Morea was …


(460 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Yūsuf, an Ottoman poet; Yūsuf Nābī came from Urfa (Ruhā, hence Ruhāwī, not Rūḥānī as one often finds). From there he came in the reign of Muḥammad IV to Stambul and became a favourite of the grandvizier Ḳara Muṣṭafā. He held a post as kiaya, made the pilgrimage after Ḳara Muṣṭafā’s death and later settled in Aleppo. When the governor there, Muḥammad Balṭad̲j̲i [q. v.], became grandvizier, he took Nābī to Stambul and gave him the post of superintendent of the department of the Anatolian chief accountant ( Anadolu müḥāsebed̲j̲isi). Later he gave up this office for another and died ag…


(692 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the reputed but mythical founder of the Ḳalandarīya. According to all the information available regarding the early history of these dervishes, it is more than probable that we have not here to do with a body similar to the other dervish orders introduced from Eastern Persia, but rather with a kind of wandering monks, who followed in their mental and physical mode of life the ideal which al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ḵh̲iṭaṭ (Būlāḳ 1270), ii. 432 sq. attributes to them, à propos of his description of the Ḳalandarī monastery in Cairo (cf. thereon de Sacy, Chrest. Arabe 2, Paris 1826, i. 263—275). Accor…

Sehī Čelebi

(383 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman poet and biographer of poets. He belonged to Adrianople, in his youth received his education from and was on intimate terms with his fellow-townsman and later father-in-law, the celebrated poet Ned̲j̲ātī Nūḥ Bey (d. March 17, 1509; q. v.), became K i ātib (secretary) to Prince Meḥmed, the youngest son of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, and accompanied the latter to Kaffa where he was governor ( sand̲j̲aḳ-beyi) (Leunclavius, Hist. Musulman., col. 659, 44). When the prince died in 910 (1504/1505) Sehī went to Stambul and obtained an appointment as secretary in the Dīwān ( dīwān kiātibi) there…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a

(2,017 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, name of several viziers of the Ottoman empire, mostly of Christian origin (as the name Sinān [al-Dīn Yūsuf ] suggests; cf. Isl., xi. 20, note I and J. v. Hammer, G.O.R., ii. 536, note a). The most important are: 1. Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Sinān Pas̲h̲a, vizier under Meḥmed II the Conqueror. Mollā Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was a son of the famous Mollā Ḵh̲iḍr Beg, who, a son of the ḳāḍī of Siwrī Ḥiṣār Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn, traced his descent to the celebrated Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Naṣr al-Dīn. His father who died in 863 (1458/1459) was the first ḳāḍī of Stambul (cf. the art. k̲h̲iḍr beg). Sinān Pas̲h̲a was born in Brussa pr…

Ṭursun Beg

(190 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman historian. Ṭursun Beg whose mak̲h̲laṣ was Lebībī, is of unknown origin; his father was an uncle ( ʿamūd̲j̲a) of the Brusa city bailiff Ḏj̲ubbe ʿAlī and also possessed a fief which soon passed to the son. Ṭursun Beg took part in the capture of Constantinople and the Rumelian campaigns of Meḥemmed II and we find him in the campaign against Trebizond as a clerk in the dīwān ( dīwān kiātibt); he later became defterdār of Anatolia and finally of Rumelia. He still held this office in the reign of Bāyazīd II. The date of his death is not known. Under the title Ṭaʾrīk̲h̲-i Ebu ’l-Fetḥ, Ṭursun Be…


(439 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, a district in Asia Minor, formerly the land of the Teke-og̲h̲lu [q. v.], in Pamphylia and Lycia. Teke-eli, i. e. land of the goat ( teke = goat, not tekke, from which we find the name erroneously derived as early as J. Leunclavius), lies in Southern Anatolia and comprises roughly the land around Finika, Elmali̊, Istanoz, Istawros and the two ports of Adalia [q. v.] and ʿAlāʾya [q. v.]. In the north, Teke-eli was bouuded by the districts of Ḳaraman [q. v.], Ḥamīd-eli [q. v.], in the east by Ić-eli, in the west by Mentes̲h̲e…


(426 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Muṣṭafā, Turkish historian. He was born at Salonika (Turkish Selānīk), and lost his father at Salonika in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 972 (1565/1566), while he accompanied the Beylerbey of Rumili, S̲h̲amsī Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, as a reader of the Ḳurʾān ( Tārīk̲h̲, p. 11, line 6 ab infra). He held a number of offices which are accurately enumerated in his work. When in 1584 he had been for some time secretary and diwitdār of the Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, he became secretary of the siliḥdār (siliḥdār k i ātibi; cf. Tārīk̲h̲, p. 235: Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 22, 995 = Nov. 23, 1586), then of the sipāhīs; then he was…


(245 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Meḥemmed, an Ottoman biographer, born in Stambul, the son of a certain Ḥusnī Bey (cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿ Ot̲h̲mānī, ii. 178), adopted an official career and died in his native town as an official in the education service on the 19th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1326 (Jan. 12, 1909). His tomb is in Scutari in the Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmad cemetery. Meḥemmed T̲h̲uraiyā has earned lasting fame as the compiler of an Ottoman Dictionary of National Biography, which he called Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿ Ot̲h̲mānī and published in 4 volumes in Stambul between 1308 and 1315. On the plan, contents and importance of t…

Naṣūḥ Pas̲h̲a

(899 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman grand vizier, was of Christian descent and was born either in Gümüld̲j̲ina (the modern Komotiní, Thrace, Greece) or in Drama. According to some sources (e. g. Baudier and Grimestone in Knolles), he was the son of a Greek priest, according to others (e. g. Naʿīmā, Taʾrīk̲h̲, first edition, p. 283: arnaudd̲j̲insi̊) of Albanian origin. He came early in life to Stambul, spent two years in the Old Seray as a teberdār (halbardier) and left it as a čaus̲h̲. Through the favour of the sulṭān’s confidant Meḥemmed Ag̲h̲a he rapidly attained high office. In quick successi…


(531 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Yaḥyā b. Pīr ʿAlī b. Naṣūḥ, an Ottoman theologian and poet, with the nom de plume ( mak̲h̲laṣ) of Newʿī was born in Malg̲h̲ara (Rumelia), the son of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Pīr ʿAlī in 940 (1533). Up to his tenth year he was taught by his learned father and then became a pupil of Ḳaramānī-zāde Meḥemmed Efendi. His fellow pupils were Bāḳī, the poet [q. v.] and Saʿd al-Dīn, the famous historian [q. v.]. He was an intimate friend ¶ of the former. He joined the ʿUlemāʾ, became müderris of Gallipoli in 973 (1565) and after filling several other offices became a teacher in the Medrese of Mihr u-Mā…

Waḳʿa Nuwīs, Waḳāʾiʿ Nuwīs

(246 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
Waḳāʾi ʿ nuwīs is the officially appointed Ottoman historian while waḳʿa nuwīs means keeper of records; the distinction between the two terms was already pointed out by von Hammer, G. O. R., vii. 465. The first official historian of the Ottomans is usually said to have been ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a (cf. F. Babinger, G. O. W., p. 227 sq.). The list of official Ottoman historians is not yet complete and accurate. There are gaps and errors in the list given by J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., viii. 591 sq. (cf. thereon P. Wittek in M. O. G., i. 152 and 243 sq. and also F. Babinger, G. O W., p. 227, note 3 and p…

Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a

(718 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, usually called Güzeld̲j̲e Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a, an Ottoman statesman. The son of Christian parents ( Ils [i.e. Ayās Pas̲h̲a and Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a] sont tous venuz de chrestiens, in C. D. Schepper, Tagebuch, in Missions diplomatiques de Corn. Dpl. de Schepper, dit Scepperus, de 1523 à 1555, par le Brn. de St.-Génois et G. A. Yssel de Schepper, in vol. xxx. of the Mémoires de l’Académie de Belgique, Brussels 1861, p. 169 infra), he was born in the reign of Bāyazīd II and brought up in the Imperial Serāi (Ewliyā, i. 169). He attained the rank of a rikiāb ag̲h̲asi (“stirrupag̲h̲a”), accompanied Selīm I o…


(125 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, a popular pronunciation of the perf. pass, sūk̲h̲te from the Persian verb sūk̲h̲ten, to burn, to set on fire; literally then one afire, in flames, i.e. consumed by the love of God or learning. Softa in Turkish is particularly applied to students (Ar. ṭālib), especially the beginner in the sciences or in theology. After his first courses, the student is usually called dānis̲h̲mend. Risings of the Softa’s, who used to rebel en masse have repeatedly played a dangerous part in Ottoman history. (Franz Babinger) Bibliography The dictionaries and J. v. Hammer, G.O.R., ii. 238 iv. 346 cf. also his D…


(707 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, a petty Anatolian dynasty. The earlier history of the Ramaḍān-Og̲h̲ullari̊ is, like that of most of the minor Anatolian principalities ( ṭewāʾif-i mülūk), wrapped in obscurity. According to tradition, this Turkoman family came in Ertog̲h̲rul’s time from Central Asia to Anatolia where they settled in the region of Adana and founded their power. Their territory comprised the districts of Adana. Sīs, Ayās, a part of the territory of the Warsaḳ Turkomans, Tarsūs, etc. The date of the earliest known prince of the dynasty…
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