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(823 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
( Seres, Turk. Sīrōz), capital of the former sand̲j̲aḳ of Sīrōz in the wilāyet of Salonika, situated on the edge of a broad wellwatered fertile plain, not far from the Struma, on the Salonika-Dede— Ag̲h̲ač railway. Serres has a castle, called Dragota in the middle ages, built on a steep hill, numerous mosques and Greek churches. The number of inhabitants is nearly 30,000, the majority Bulgarians. In the country around much rice, fruit, wine, tobacco and vegetables are cultivated, and a big export t…

K̲h̲osrew Beg

(539 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, also called G̲h̲āzī Ḵh̲osrew, Ottoman governor of Bosnia. Ḵh̲osrew was the son of the governor of Bosnia (869/870), later of Skutari (Albania) Naṣūḥ Beg, who had married a daughter of Bāyezīd II in 894 (1489) (cf. Die altosman. anonymen Chroniken, ed. by F. Giese, Breslau 1922, p. 122, 5, 1. col.; cf. also J. v. Hammer, G.O.R., ii. 302, and Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, iii. 555, s. v. Naṣūḥ Beg). He is therefore sometimes called Sulṭānzāde. Thanks to his connections, Ḵh̲osrew Beg was appointed governor of Bosnia at quite an early age in 924 (1518) and then tr…

Nūḥ b. Muṣṭafā

(256 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman theologian and translator, was born in Anatolia but migrated while still quite young to Cairo where he studied all branches of theology and attained a high reputation. He died there in 1070 (1659). He wrote a series of theological treatises, some of which are detailed by Brockelmann, G.A. L., ii. 314. His most important work however is his free translation and edition of S̲h̲āhrastānī’s celebrated work on the sects, Terd̲j̲eme-i Milal vie-Niḥal which he prepared at the suggestion of a prominent Cairo citizen named Yūsuf Efendi. It exists in manuscript in Berlin (cf. Pertsch, Ka…


(520 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the Turkish name for Trik(k)ala, a town in western Thessaly (Greece), on the well watered Trikkalmos, 400 feet above sealevel, on the Volos-Kalabaka railway. Tirḥāla, not far from the ancient Trikka, now completely disappeared, with the famous temple of Asclepius and belonging since 1881 to Greece, formerly to the Ottoman empire, in which it was incorporated in 798 (beg. Oct. 16, 1395) by Bāyazīd I (cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Rumeli ttnd Bosna, ed. by J. v. Hammer, p. 100, and J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., i. 249). The town was taken at the same time as Larissa (Turk. Yeñi S̲h̲ehr, q…


(521 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Neo-Caesarea, first mentioned by Pliny (vi. 3) so that it presumably arose under Tiberius, lies in the Anatolian wilāyet of Sīwās [q. v.] 1,150 feet above sea-level. The town is picturesquely situated at the foot of a hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle which was erected from the material provided by the numerous buildings of antiquity there. Here in remote antiquity was Cabira and after its decline Diospolis founded by Pompey, later called Sebaste. In Church history Nīksār is famous as the scene of a Council (314 a. d.) and as the birthplace of Gregory the miracle-worke…


(142 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an administrative district in the Ottoman empire which corresponds somewhat to the Swiss canton or French commune. It is a subdivision of the ḳaḍā (ḳazā, q. v.), which may be compared with the French arrondissement and is governed by a ḳāʾim-maḳām [q. v.] while the nāḥiye is under a mudīr. This official who used to be appointed by the wālī, the governor of the province, received his instructions from the ḳāʾim-maḳām, to whom he was subordinate. The subdivisions of the nāḥiye are called ḳarye, i. e. village. The term nāḥiye for an administrative district is of recent origin. For the…


(1,272 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Turk. Bosna Serai or simply Serai (cf. the art. bosna sarai), capital of Bosnia in the Southern Slav states, picturesquely situated on the Milyačka in a valley open to the west enclosed on other sides by high and rocky hills, 1730—2273 feet above sea-level, with 60,087 inhabitants (1921) (of whom one third are Muslims); they mainly live by local industries (copperware, silver-filigree, carpets and tobacco). In the xvth century we find in place of Serayévo the powerful fortress of Vrhbosna, part of which still survives in the modern citadel of Serayévo. Even in the xvith century Serayévo…

Nīlūfer K̲h̲atun

(371 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
wife of Urk̲h̲ān and mother of Murād I, apparently the Greek name Nenuphar (i. e. Lotus-flower) (cf. J. v. Hammer, G. O. R., i. 59), was the daughter of the lord of Yārḥiṣār (Anatolia, near Brussa; cf. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Ḏj̲ihānnumā, p. 659) and according to one story was betrothed to the lord of Belokoma (Biled̲j̲ik). ʿOt̲h̲mān, the founder of the dynasty which bears his name, is said to have kidnapped and carried her off in 699 (1299) and to have destined her to be the wife of his son Urk̲h̲ān, then only 12 years old. Idrīs Bitl…


(677 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the chief town in a ḳaḍā of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasia in the wilāyet of Siwas [q. v.] in Turkey in Asia, lies in a picturesque position at the foot of a volcanic hill which rises straight out of the plain and is crowned by a castle which formerly commanded the celebrated bridge said to have been built by Bāyazīd I. The settlement is probably very old as is evident from the numerous rock chambers cut out of the cliffs. The number of inhabitants according to Maercker (1893) was about 5,000 and the…


(268 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ḥusain, an Ottoman poet and historian. Ḥusain whose mak̲h̲laṣ was Wed̲j̲īhī, came from Bag̲h̲če Serāy in the Crimea at an early age to Stambul where he became seal-bearer ( mühürdār) to the later grand vizier, then Ḳapudan Pās̲h̲ā, Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. He died in 1071 (beg. Sept. 6, 1660) in Stambul and was buried before the Adrianople gate. Wed̲j̲īhī left a history and a Dīwān which has not yet been printed. The former begins in the year 1047 (beg. May 20, 1637) with the description of the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād under Murād IV, then describes the reign of …


(1,690 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
or Yeñi Bazar is the name of a former (down to 1912) Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ in what was once the wilāyet of Kosovo; it now belongs to Jugo-Slavia. The district through which the river Lim flows and which is therefore also called the Lim district (area 7,350 sq. km. with 168,000 inhabitants of whom 3/4 are Christian Serbs and 1/4 Muḥammadan Albanians), was bounded on the north by Bosnia and separated Serbia from ¶ Montenegro. The importance of Novibazar was for military reasons as it secured communications between Bosnia and Rumelia and at the same time prevented communic…


(1,041 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
or Yāzid̲j̲i-Zāde, the epithet of two early Ottoman poets and mystics, both sons of a certain yāzid̲j̲i (i.e. kātib) Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn. He is said to have come from Boli and spent most of his later life in Angora. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn wrote in addition to works on mysticism, a treatise on medicine called S̲h̲emsīye and a poetical calendar of 5,000 couplets of no literary value, but perhaps of linguistic interest, on the omens of certain phenomena in the heavens such as rainbows, eclipses, lunar rings, falling stars etc. The work was published in 841 (1412) an…


(2,545 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
( Rausium), a town in Dalmatia, formerly a free state (now Dubrovnik), on the south side of a peninsula which runs out into the Adriatic, picturesquely situated (50 feet) at the foot and on the slopes of Mount Sergius with about 14,500 inhabitants, mainly Croats, was founded in the viith century by Romance fugitives from Epidaurus which had been destroyed by the Slavs, later belonged to Byzantine Dalmatia which had been settled by a Romance population. At the end of the tenth century the town, which had became strong and rich through its prosp…


(154 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Pālheng (p.), lit. string, rope, halter, cord, is applied to the cord worn by dervishes around the neck, at the end of which hangs a many-rayed star of carnelian, the size of a crown piece, called teslīm tas̲h̲, which is given to the young dervish at the end of his discipleship. With some, especially the Bektas̲h̲ī dervishes [cf. bektas̲h̲ī], a number of olive-shaped, whitish-grey, transparent stones are strung on the cord; these are found in Mesopotamia and called dürr-i Ned̲j̲ef (“Pearls of Ned̲j̲ef”). The jasper (Turkish yes̲h̲em) from which the teslīm stones of the Bektas̲h̲ī mo…

S̲h̲efīḳ Meḥmed

(449 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
Efendi, called Muṣarrifzāde, Ottoman imperial historian and stylist. Not much is known of his life. He was born in Stambul, received an appointment as clerk in the Dīwān ( dīwān kiātibi), later became one of the k̲h̲od̲j̲āgjān i.e. head of one of the 28 chancelleries (cf. J. von Hammer, G. O. R., viii. 431), was next appointed chief of the smaller audit office ( muḥāsebe-i küčük) of the pious foundations ( ewḳāf), and ultimately was appointed imperial historian ( waḳʿa nüwīs). He seems to have died not long after his appointment to the office, the date of his death is given…

Ḳoyun Baba

(240 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, lit. “father of sheep”, a Turkish saint. He is thought to have been a contemporary of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektas̲h̲ [q.v.] and is said to have received his name from the fact that he did not speak, but only bleated like a sheep five times a day at the periods for prayer. Sulṭān Bāyazīd II, called Walī, built a splendid tomb and dervish monastery on the site of his alleged grave at ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (near Amasia, in Anatolia) which was one of the finest and richest in the Ottoman empire. Ewliyā Čelebi in his Travels (Seyāḥetnāme, ii. 180 sq.) describes very fully the great Bektas̲h̲i monastery the…


(1,462 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the usual name of the Ottoman historian, lawyer and stylist S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Sulaimān b. Kemāl Pas̲h̲a, often also called Ibn Kemāl-pas̲h̲a. Kemāl-pas̲h̲a-zāde belonged to a distinguished family of Adrianople where he was born as the son of the wealthy Suleimān Pas̲h̲a. His grandfather was Kemāl-pas̲h̲a who, like his father, had taken part in repeated campaigns against the infidels and attained great prestige (on him see Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, iv. 78). Kemāl-pas̲h̲a-zāde served at first in Bāyazīd’s army but was induced to take up a legal career by an e…


(3,927 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, usually called Ḳod̲j̲a Miʿmār Sinān, the greatest architect of the Ottomans. Sinān came from Ḳaiṣarīya [q. v]. in Anatolia where he was born on the 9th Rad̲j̲ab 895 (April 15, 1589) the son of Christian Greeks. His father was later called ʿAbd al-Mennān but his real name is not known. His non-Turkish origin ( mühtedī) is beyond question and is never in dispute, either among his contemporaries or among all serious ¶ Turkish scholars. The young Sinān came into the Serai in Stambul with the levy of youths ( dews̲h̲irme, q. v.), became a Janissary, distingmshed himself in the campaigns…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(577 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman grand vizier. Rāg̲h̲ib Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was born in 1111 (1699) in Stambul, the son of the kiātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī, was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān, then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governor of Wan, ʿĀrifī Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] and lastly to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141 (1728) he returned to Stambul and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi. Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146 (1733) he was appointed defterdār there, but very soon …


(351 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, secretary of state for the Sulṭān’s tug̲h̲ra, chancellor. The Sald̲j̲ūḳs and Mamlūks already had special officials for drawing the tug̲h̲ra, the sulṭān’s signature. As their official organisation was inherited in almost all its details by the Ottomans this post naturally was included. Its holder was called nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i or tewḳīʿī. The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i held the same rank as the defterdārs [q. v.] and indeed even preceded them, for we find defterdārs promoted to nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲is but never a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i becoming a defterdār. The nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i was included among the “pillars o…
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