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Bādīs

(428 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū Mannad Nāṣir al-Dawla, son and successor of al-Manṣūr, a prince of the Zīrid dynasty, succeeded his father on the 3. Rabīʿ I. 386 (26 March 996), as governor of Ifrīḳīya and Central Mag̲h̲rib. His accession was confirmed by his suzerain al-Ḥākim bi-amriʾllāh the Fāṭimid Caliph of Egypt. He continued the war against the Zanāta and after entrusting the government of Tāhert (Tagdemt) to his uncle Ittūweft he sent against Zīrī b. ʿAṭya, sovereign of Fās, his other uncle Ḥammād who was defeated at …

al-Ḥulal

(292 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
al-Maws̲h̲īya fī Ḏh̲ikr al-Ak̲h̲bār al-Marrākus̲h̲īya, an anonymous work, dealing especially with the history of Marrākus̲h̲. The author begins his story with the foundation of the city; he deals in detail with the history of the Almoravids and Almohads but on reaching the Marīnids, he only gives a summary list of the rulers of this dynasty. We find at the end of the book that he lived in Marrākus̲h̲. The work has been attributed to Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (!) and by its recent editor to Lisān al-Dīn b. al-Ḵh̲aṭīb; but the author himself tells us (p. 136) that he compiled (completed?) the work on the 12th Ra…

al-Barrādī

(188 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(Abu ’l-Faḍl Abu ’l-Ḳāṣim b. Ibrāhīm al-Barrādī al-Dammarī), belonged to Dammar on. the Ḏj̲ebel-Nefūsa and lived some time there: he afterwards settled in Ḏj̲erba, where he died. His biography gives no dates but as al-Barrādī had, among other teachers, Abū Sākin ʿĀmir al-S̲h̲amāk̲h̲ī who died in 792 (1390), it is probable that he flourished at the end of the viiith and beginning of the ixth century A. II. His chief work is the Kitāb al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-Muntaḳāt a supplement to the Ṭabaḳāt al-ʿUlamā of Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad al-Saʿīd, in which he resumes, from the Abāḍi point of view…

Idrīs II

(601 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, son and successor of Idrīs I [q. v.]. The latter at his death left no children but one of his concubines named Kanza was pregnant by him. His freedman al-Rās̲h̲id persuaded the Berbers to wait till the child was born and in case it should be a son, to proclaim him imām and successor to his father. This expectation was fulfilled. Kanza gave birth to a son on the 1st Ḏj̲umādā II 177 (793), who was recognised as Idrīs I’s successor and entrusted to al-Rās̲h̲id’s care. The attachment of this man to the family of Idrīs brought upon him the persecution of Ibrāhīm b. a…

al-Kattānī

(216 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Idrīs, a member of the important family of the Kattānīyīn and S̲h̲arīf in origin, a contemporary Moroccan writer (he was still writing in 1314 a. h.). He is the author of a number of works including a book in honour of his ancestor Idrīs ( al-Azhār al-ʿĀṭirat al-Anfās bi-d̲h̲ikr baʿḍ Maḥāsin Ḳuṭb al-Mag̲h̲rib, Fās 1314 a. h.). The most important is his Ṣalwat al-Anfās wa-Muḥādat̲h̲at al-Akyās mimman uḳbira fi ’l-Ulamāʾ wa-l-Ṣulaḥāʾ bi-Fās (3 vols., Fās 1316= 1898—99). The first part of this book is devoted to showing the merit which is acquired by visiting zāwiya’s a…

al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Ḥammūda

(193 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz), an Arab historian of Tunis, accompanied ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain into exile in Algiers, during the reign of ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (1740) and became his first secretary when this prince succeeded to power (1782—1799). He retained this office also under ʿAlī Bey’s son, Ḥammūda Bey (1782—1814) who had been his pupil. He composed a history entitled Kilāb al-Bās̲h̲ā, in which he gives a brief survey of the history of the Ḥafṣids and of the Turkish governors of Tunis and many details of the reigns of ʿAlī Bey and Ḥusain b. ʿAlī. The text which is stil…

Ibn Tūmart

(1,835 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, a celebrated Muslim reformer in Morocco, known as the Mahdī of the Almohads. His real name was, according to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Amg̲h̲ār which in Berber means “chief”. Ibn Tūmart in this language means “son of ʿOmar the little”. This was his father’s name who was also called ʿAbd Allāh. The names ¶ of his ancestors also are Berber. The date of his birth is unknown but it must have been between 470 (1077-78) and 480 (1087-88). He was born at Id̲j̲li-en-Warg̲h̲ān, a village of Sūs. His family belonged to the Iserg̲h̲īn, a branch of the Hintāta, one of…

Ibn Abī Zarʿ

(327 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan (var. abū ʿabd ʿallāh ʿalī) al-Fāsī, historian of the Mag̲h̲rib, author of two works, one entitled Zuhrat al-Bustān fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Zamān, which seems lost, the other al-Anīs al-muṭrib bi-Rawḍ al-Ḳirtās fī Ak̲h̲bār Mulūk al-Mag̲h̲rīb wa Taʾrīk̲h̲ Madīnat Fās. Nothing is known of the life of the author, who is also called Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-G̲h̲arnāṭī. His work, which begins with the Idrīsid dynasty, is very important for the history of Morocco to 724 (1324), a date which cannot be much before the year…

Huwāra

(482 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(Berber Howāra) is the name of one of the most important Berber tribes. It must be confessed that the genealogists are not agreed as to the place which should be allotted to it in the Berber family, quite apart from the legends, which give it a Yemenī origin, The Arabic etymology of the name ( tahawwarnā) has given rise to suggestions detailed by al-Idrīsī and attacked by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn. The most probable view is that their eponymous ancestor, was descended from Aūrīg̲h̲, son of Branes, The tribes and clans of the Huwāra were very numerous; among the …

Ibrāhīm

(666 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
b. al-Ag̲h̲lab (184—196 = 800— 812), founder of the semi-independent dynasty of the Ag̲h̲labids, was the son of al-Ag̲h̲lab b. Sālim b. ʿIḳāl al-Tamīmī, a native of Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ who had governed Ifrīḳiya after the departure of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ in 148 a. h. and had been killed two years later in the revolt of al-Ḥaṣan b. Ḥarb. In 179 (795) Ibrāhīm received the governorship of the Zāb. When the mistakes of the governor Ibn Muḳātil had roused the people against him, who finally (183 = 799) expelled him, Ibrāhīm came to his assistance, …

Berg̲h̲awāṭa

(1,464 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, is the name formerly applied to a group of Maṣmūda tribes of which the more important were the Berānis, the Zwāg̲h̲a, the Maṭmaṭa, the Maṭg̲h̲āra, the Banū Būrag̲h̲ and the Banū Wāg̲h̲mer. They were settled in the west of Morocco in the district of Tāmesnā which now bears the name of S̲h̲āwīya from Salé (Salāʿ) and Azemmūr to Asfī and Anfā. They adopted the teachings of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs and took part in their wars against the Arabs under the leadership of Maisara, the water-carrier of Tangier.…

Ibrāhīm

(524 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū Isḥāḳ b. Aḥmad, ninth ruler of the Ag̲h̲labid dynasty. Although he had solemnly sworn to his dying brother Muḥammad Abu ’l-G̲h̲arāniḳ to recognise his nephew Abū ʿIḳāl, he seized the throne on the death of his brother on the 6th Ḏj̲umāda I 261 (= 16th February 875) with the acquiescence of the people of al-Ḳairawān. He was famous for two very different reasons: his taste for building and his ferocious cruelty. He built the Ḳaṣr al-Baḥr at al-Raḳḳāda and placed along the coast a number of towers ( maḥāris) to signal nocturnal attacks, which has led other buildings to be wrongly …

Ḥanẓala

(390 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
b. Ṣafwān b. Zuhair al-Kalbī was appointed governor of Egypt in 102 (720-721) by the caliph Yazīd II, in place of his brother Bis̲h̲r b. Ṣafwān, who was sent to Ifrīḳīya. By Yazīd’s orders he had the statues and pictures destroyed. He governed the province for three years (S̲h̲awwāl 102 — Shawwāl 105) until he was dismissed by His̲h̲ām. But the latter had to recall him, when the incapacity of the new governor ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḵh̲ālid brought the province into danger of being conquered by the Byzantines (7th S̲h̲aʿbān 118=20th August 736). He had governed the province for five years …

Ḳaramanli

(1,359 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, a family who ruled Tripolitaniain almost complete independence from 1711 to 1835. The founder of the dynasty, Aḥmad Ḳaramanli, seems to have been a Ḳulūg̲h̲lī. In 1123 (1711) he took advantage of the absence of the Pas̲h̲a Muḥammad Abū Ammis to have himself proclaimed by the people, conquered and killed at Zuwāg̲h̲a Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a who was sent to overthrow him, bribed Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a who commanded a new expedition (1124=1712) and purchased from Sulṭān Aḥmad III a firmān confirming him in authority with the title of beylerbey. He put down insurrections at Tād̲j̲ūrā and Maslāta…

Idrīsids

(904 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
We have dealt above with the reigns of Idrīs I and Idrīs II. The decadence of the dynasty began with the death of the latter. He left eleven sons of whom the eldest, Muḥammad, succeeded him. But at the instigation of his grandmother Kanza, he divided his heritage into fiefs, which he allotted to eight of his brothers, some of whom must have been still children. He doubtless reserved a kind of suzerainty for himself but this did not prevent the rivalries and quarrels which broke up the empire. T…

al-Buṣīrī

(240 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Saʿīd b. Ḥammād b. Muḥsin, an Arabie poet of Berber origin as his tribal name al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī shows. He was born on the 1st S̲h̲awwāl 608 = 7th March 1213 in Abūṣīr (whence the name al-Būṣīrī), or according to Suyūṭī at Dilāṣ (he is also called al-Dilāṣī). Very little is known of his life. He lived at Bilbīs, was a clever calligraphist, attended the lectures of the Ṣūfī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Marsī and acquired the reputation of being learned in Tradition. The date of his death is not, certain: Maḳ…

Kult̲h̲ūm

(344 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
b. ʿIyāḍ al-Ḳus̲h̲airī of the tribe of Ḳais was chosen by the Caliph His̲h̲ām to avenge the disastrous defeat inflicted by the Ṣūfī Berbers on the Arabs on the “Day of the Nobles” ( G̲h̲azawāt al-As̲h̲rāf) in the beginning of 123 a. h. He set out at the head of 30,000 men, to whom were added the garrisons of al-Ifrīḳīya and the Mag̲h̲rib, and joined Ḥabīb b. Abū ʿUbaida who was trying to stop the advance of the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs near Tlemcen. The tactless attitude of the Syrians and particularly the arrogance of Bald̲j̲, nephew of Kult̲h̲ūm …

Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī

(182 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(Ibn ʿAd̲h̲ārī), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Marrākus̲h̲ī, Arab historian of the Mag̲h̲rib and Spain, about whom we have no information further than that he flourished about the end of the viith (xiiith) century, with which his chronicle concludes. The latter is of special interest as it contains portions of lost works. It is called al-Bayān al-mug̲h̲rib fī Ak̲h̲bār al-Mag̲h̲rib and is not preserved in its entirety. Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī also wrote a history of the East, which we only know by name. Dozy published the text of al-Bayān al-Mug̲h̲rib: Histoire de l’Afrique et de l’Espagne (Leyden 18…

al-Ḏj̲aiṭālī

(237 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
(var. al-Ḏj̲aṭālī), Abū Ṭāhir Ismāʿīl b. Mūsā, of Ḳṣar Id̲j̲aiṭāl in the Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa, an Abāḍī scholar, famous for his marvellous memory, taught law, literature and poetry at Mazg̲h̲ūra. He was the author of numerous works, including the Ḳawāʿid al-lslām, a book which under the name ʿAḳīda is still the canon of the Abāḍīs of Ḏj̲ebel Nefūsa (published at Cairo with the commentary of Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Kusbī), the Ḳanāṭir, a religious encyclopaedia in several volumes, which contains a mass of anecdotes, proverbs and quotations (likewise published in Cairo…

Ibn Abī Dīnār

(162 words)

Author(s): Basset, René
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ruʿainī al-Ḳairawānī, an Arab historian, wrote a history called al-Mūnis fī Ak̲h̲bār Ifrīḳīya wa Tūnis in 1110 (1698) or according to a statement in a manuscript in 1092 (1681). As he mentions in the preface the work falls into eight divisions; the first contains the description of Tunis, the second of Ifrīḳīya, the third of the conquest of Ifrīḳīya by the Muslims, the fourth the history of the ʿUbaidīs, the fifth that of the Ṣinhād̲j̲a, the sixth that of the Banū Ḥafṣ, th…
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