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(84 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, a term in Arabic prosody applied to a hemistich or half line ( bait); the first hemistich is called ṣadr and the second ʿad̲j̲uz. Each has two, three or four feet, tafʿila or d̲j̲uzʿ. The last foot of the first hemistich is called ʿarūḍ and the last of the second ḍarb. As a general rule, and in the first verse of a poem, the ʿarūḍ foot should have the same measure ( taṣrīʿ) and rhyme ( taḳfiyā) as the ḍarb foot. (Moh. Ben Cheneb)


(524 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.), syllepsis in oratory, a figure of rhetoric ( badiʿ) which consists in using a word having two different meanings, one obvious and the other secondary, veiling the second sense by the first so that it is the first sense which strikes the listener first. Tawriya is called īhām (dissimulation) because he who uses it conceals the remoter meaning he had in view by the primary sense which is seized on first. It is sometimes called ibhām (“act of concealing or masking”). There are two kinds of tawriya: 1. that which is “deprived” of everything that might indicate the meaning one has in view ( mud̲h̲…


(73 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, name of the sixteenth metre in Arabic prosody, added to al-Ḵh̲alīl b. Aḥmad’s list by al-Ak̲h̲fas̲h̲ al-Awsaṭ [q. v.]. It is also called muk̲h̲taraʿ, muḥdat̲h̲, k̲h̲abab, s̲h̲aḳīḳ, muntasiḳ, darb al-k̲h̲ail, rakḍ al-k̲h̲ail, ṣawt al-nāḳūs. It does not seem to have been used by the poets before Islām or of the first century a. h. ¶ It has four feet to the hemistich and two ʿarūḍ and four ḍarb: (Moh. Ben Cheneb)

Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ

(388 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Ras̲h̲īḳ al-Azdī, whose father was perhaps of Greek origin but a client of the Azd, was born at al-Muḥammadīya (al-Masīla) in Algiers about 385 (995) or 390 (1000). He studied first in his native town where he learned his father’s trade of a jeweller, but went to Ḳairawān in 406 (1015-6) and was appointed court-poet by the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Muʿizz. This appointment earned him the enmity of his contemporary Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd b. Aḥmad, known as Ibn S̲h̲araf al-Ḳ…


(889 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.), a term in prosody meaning rhyme generally. The word seems (according to Goldziher, Abhandl. zur Arab. Philologie, i. 83 sqq.) to have originally meant a poetic utterance or a lampoon, then a poem and finally a rhyme. The theory of the ḳāfiya is considered a special science, distinct from ʿarūḍ (prosody proper). It teaches how verses shouldend as regards consonants, vowels, etc. In the narrower sense, ḳāfiya, according to al-Ḵh̲alīl b. Aḥmad [q. v.], is the group of consonants, which begins with the vowelled consonant immediately preceding the last two qui…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(286 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Abī Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Abī Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Mālik b. Ibrāhīm b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbbād al-Nafzī al-Ḥimyarī al-Rundī, generally known as Ibn ʿAbbād, a lawyer, mystic poet, and preacher, was born in 733 (1332-3) in Spain at Ronda, where he spent his youth, learned the Ḳurʾān by heart at the age of seven and began to study language and law. He then went to Fās and Tlemcen to complete his studies. He returned to Morocco, settled at Salā where he studied under Aḥmad b. ʿĀs̲h̲i…


(139 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the first metre in Arabic prosody, has one ʿarūḍ and three ḍarb; the paradigm is: Faʿūlun mafāʿīlun faʿūlun mafāʿīlun in each hemistich. The ʿarūḍ, or last foot of the first hemistich, is always mafāʿilun. The first ḍarb, or last foot of the second hemistich, is mafāʿīlun; the second, mafāʿilun; the third, ( mafāʿī =) faʿūlun. The faʿūlun foot often loses its nūn; the dropping of this is recommended for the foot which immediately precedes the foot forming the third ḍarb. The first faʿūlun of the first hemistich of the first verse of a piece may lose its fa, and combined with the loss of the nūn, w…

Ibn Sīda

(316 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl (or Aḥmad or Muḥammad) b. Sīda, philologist, man of letters, and logician, born at Murcia in Spain and died in Denia aged about 60 on Sunday, 4 days before the end of Rabīʿ II 458 = 25th March 1066. Ibn Sīda was blind and studied with his father, also blind, who was a not unimportant philologist, Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Ṣāʿid al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Abū ʿOmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ṭalamankī, Ṣāliḥ b. al-Ḥasan al-Bag̲h̲dādī and others. He attached himself to the court of the Emīr Abu ’l-Ḏj̲ais̲h̲ Mud̲j̲āhid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿĀmirī…


(143 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the name of the fourth metre in Arab prosody. It consists in theory of three ¶ mufāʿalatun to the hemistich, but in practice the third foot becomes mufāʿal (= faʿūlun). It has two ʿarūḍ and three ḍarb. The first ʿarūḍ has one ḍarb and the second has two: The alterations that may be undergone by the feet are as follows: 1. the fairly frequent disappearance of the vowel of the lām in mufāʿalatun (mufāʿaltun = mafāʿīlun); 2. the rather rare disappearance of the lām and its vowel ( mufāʿatun = mafāʿilun); 3. the excessively rare disappearance of the vowel of the lām and of the nūn (mufāʿaltu = mafāʿīlu).…

Ibn Fāris

(471 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusain Aḥmad b. Fāris b. Zakarīyā b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, philologist and grammarian of the school of Kūfa, died at al-Raiy in Ṣafar 395 = Nov.-Dec. 1004. The date and place of his birth are unknown but it is supposed that he was born in a village named Kursuf in the district of al-Zahrā. He studied in Ḳazwīn, Hamad̲h̲ān, Bag̲h̲dād, and on the occasion of his pilgrimage, in Mecca. Among his teachers we may specially mention his father, who was a philologist and S̲h̲āfiʿī jurist, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al…


(73 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, a term in prosody, indicating the suppression of the second letter when quiescent of a foot beginning with a sabab k̲h̲afīf (see the art. ʿarūḍ). It affects: 1°. fāʿilun (> faʿilun), 2°. mustafʿilun and mustafiʿlun (mutafʿilun = mafāʿilun), 3°. mafʿūlātu (maʿūlālu = fuʿūlātu), 4°. fāʿilātun (faʿilātun). It is found in the metres madīd, basīṭ, rad̲j̲az, ramal, sarīʿ, munsariḥ, Ḵh̲afīf, muḳtaḍab, mud̲j̲tat̲h̲t̲h̲ and mutadārak. (Moh. Ben Cheneb) Bibliography cf. the article ʿarūḍ.


(530 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
b. Isḥāḳ b. Mūsā b. S̲h̲uʿaib, Abu ’l-Mawadda Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, known as (Ibn) al-Ḏj̲undī, commonly called Sīdī Ḵh̲alīl in Algeria, a great Mālikī jurist of Egypt, died in Cairo on Rabīʿ I 13, 776 (= Aug. 22, 1374), according to others in 767 or 769. He studied under Ibn ʿAbd al-Hādī, al-Ras̲h̲īdī and notably ʿAbd Allāh al-Manūfī. Born of a Ḥanafī father, he adopted the Mālikī school at the instance of al-Manūfī. On the latter’s death in 749 (1348) Ḵh̲alīl devoted himself to teaching and lectured at the al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ūnīya school. He also saw service in the victorious guard and in this ca…


(109 words)

Author(s): ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.), a technical term in Arabic prosody. It means the dropping of the seventh, vowelless consonant of a foot, which ends with sabab k̲h̲afīf (see the article ʿarūḍ, i. 463b). The following feet are liable to kaff: 1. mafāʿīlun, provided that the ī remains (> mafāʿīlu); 2. fāʿilātun and mustafʿīlun (the latter in the k̲h̲afīf), provided that the next foot beginning with a sabab k̲h̲afīf does not suffer k̲h̲abn (> fāʿilātu, mustafʿilu). [In the last mentioned case four short syllables would follow in succession! Editor]. Kaff is therefore found in the metres ṭawīl, madīd, ramal, k̲h̲afī…


(1,662 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
or Ḏj̲inās (a.), paronomasia, play upon words, is a figure of rhetoric ( badīʿ) which consists in using in the same phrase two words of a similar or almost similar sound but of different meanings, e. g. amantes sunt amentes. I. 1. The tad̲j̲nīs is complete ( tāmm) when the two words resemble one another in kind, number, vocalisation (or form) and in the order of the consonants. ¶ a. If the two words are of the same kind (e. g. two substantives, two verbs or two particles), it is called identical ( mumāt̲h̲il), e. g. “The day and the Hour ( al-sāʿa) will dawn, the guilty will swear that they have…

Ibn al-Abbār

(723 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī, an Arab historian, a scion of the Ḳūḍāʿī’s settled in Onda, their ancestral estate in Spain, born at Valencia in Rabī II, 595 (Febr. 1199), was a pupil of Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Nūḥ, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥaṣṣār, Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb b. Wād̲j̲ib, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. Ḵh̲aira, Abū Sulaimān b. Ḥawṭ, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz b. Saʿāda etc. For over twenty years he was on the closest terms of intercourse with the principal traditionist of Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moḥ.
, the fifth metre in the system of Arab prosody, is regularly composed of three mutafāʿilun in each hemistich: it has three ʿarūḍ and nine ḍarb; In all the feet except mutafā and mutfā one may suppress either the second vowel of the foot ( mutafāʿilun), or the second consonant with its vowel ( ta), or the second vowel and the prolongation of the third consonant ( mutfaʿilun) which is exceedingly rare. As a result of these suppressions the regular foot, mutafāʿilun, may become mutfāʿilun (= muʿaf-ilun),mufāʿilun (= mafāʿilun),mutfaʿilun (= muftaʿilun); if this is done so that a piece …


(950 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.) is the art of reciting the Ḳurʾān, giving each consonant its full value, as much as it requires to be well pronounced without difficulty or exaggeration: strength, weakness, tonality, softness, emphasis, simplicity ( tarḳīḳ). There are three kinds of tad̲j̲wīd: 1. tartīl, slow recitation; 2. ḥadr, rapid recitation; 3. tadwīr, medium recitation. — Tad̲j̲wīd, “ the adornment of recitation”, has for its object to prevent the tongue making any mistake in the recitation of the divine words. Besides the study of the articulation of consonants it…


(393 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Sabtī, a holy man famous for his virtues and his miracles, born at Ceuta in 540 (= June 24, 1145—June 12, 1146) and died on Monday Ḏj̲umādā II 6, 601 (= Jan. 31, 1205) at Marrākis̲h̲ where he was buried near the Tāzrūt gate. He studied more particularly under Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār, the pupil of the celebrated Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ of Ceuta. He was eloquent and had no difficulty in convincing his questioners; he was very pious and used to recite the Ḳur…

I. Ibn al-Wardī

(440 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Zain al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar b. al-Muhẓaffar b. ʿOmar b. Abu ’l-Fawāris Muḥammad al-Wardī al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Bakrī, al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, philologist, jurisconsult, litterateur, and poet, born at Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān in 689 = 1290 and died of the plague at Aleppo on Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 27, 749 = March 19, 1349. He studied in his native town, at Ḥamā, Damascus, and Aleppo and while still young acted for a short time as deputy for the ḳāḍī Muḥammed b. al-Naḳīb (d. 745 = 1343). It seems that as a result of a dream he abandoned this office to devote himself to scientific work. He left the following works: 1°. Dīwā…

Kān Wa-Kān

(305 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the name of one of the seven kinds of modern poetry ( funūn), unknown to the classical authors. It was invented by the people of Bag̲h̲dād and takes its name from the formula used by story-tellers at the beginning of their recitals: “There was once upon a time”. Originally the kān wa-kān was a rhymed tale and it was only later that it was applied to other subjects, especially of moral tendency. In the spoken language it was always in vogue in the east only, especially in its place of origin. The kān wa-kān is a poem composed of strophes of two lines the metre of which is given by the p…
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