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(139 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the first metre in Arabic prosody, has one ʿarūḍ and three ḍarb; the paradigm is: Faʿūlun mafāʿīlun faʿūlun mafāʿīlun in each hemistich. The ʿarūḍ, or last foot of the first hemistich, is always mafāʿilun. The first ḍarb, or last foot of the second hemistich, is mafāʿīlun; the second, mafāʿilun; the third, ( mafāʿī =) faʿūlun. The faʿūlun foot often loses its nūn; the dropping of this is recommended for the foot which immediately precedes the foot forming the third ḍarb. The first faʿūlun of the first hemistich of the first verse of a piece may lose its fa, and combined with the loss of the nūn, w…

Ibn Sīda

(316 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl (or Aḥmad or Muḥammad) b. Sīda, philologist, man of letters, and logician, born at Murcia in Spain and died in Denia aged about 60 on Sunday, 4 days before the end of Rabīʿ II 458 = 25th March 1066. Ibn Sīda was blind and studied with his father, also blind, who was a not unimportant philologist, Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Ṣāʿid al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Abū ʿOmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ṭalamankī, Ṣāliḥ b. al-Ḥasan al-Bag̲h̲dādī and others. He attached himself to the court of the Emīr Abu ’l-Ḏj̲ais̲h̲ Mud̲j̲āhid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿĀmirī…


(1,662 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
or Ḏj̲inās (a.), paronomasia, play upon words, is a figure of rhetoric ( badīʿ) which consists in using in the same phrase two words of a similar or almost similar sound but of different meanings, e. g. amantes sunt amentes. I. 1. The tad̲j̲nīs is complete ( tāmm) when the two words resemble one another in kind, number, vocalisation (or form) and in the order of the consonants. ¶ a. If the two words are of the same kind (e. g. two substantives, two verbs or two particles), it is called identical ( mumāt̲h̲il), e. g. “The day and the Hour ( al-sāʿa) will dawn, the guilty will swear that they have…

Ibn al-Abbār

(723 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Ḳuḍāʿī, an Arab historian, a scion of the Ḳūḍāʿī’s settled in Onda, their ancestral estate in Spain, born at Valencia in Rabī II, 595 (Febr. 1199), was a pupil of Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Nūḥ, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥaṣṣār, Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb b. Wād̲j̲ib, Abu ’l-Ḥasan b. Ḵh̲aira, Abū Sulaimān b. Ḥawṭ, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz b. Saʿāda etc. For over twenty years he was on the closest terms of intercourse with the principal traditionist of Spain, Abu ’l-Rabīʿ b. Sālim, who…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moḥ.
, the fifth metre in the system of Arab prosody, is regularly composed of three mutafāʿilun in each hemistich: it has three ʿarūḍ and nine ḍarb; In all the feet except mutafā and mutfā one may suppress either the second vowel of the foot ( mutafāʿilun), or the second consonant with its vowel ( ta), or the second vowel and the prolongation of the third consonant ( mutfaʿilun) which is exceedingly rare. As a result of these suppressions the regular foot, mutafāʿilun, may become mutfāʿilun (= muʿaf-ilun),mufāʿilun (= mafāʿilun),mutfaʿilun (= muftaʿilun); if this is done so that a piece …


(950 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
(a.) is the art of reciting the Ḳurʾān, giving each consonant its full value, as much as it requires to be well pronounced without difficulty or exaggeration: strength, weakness, tonality, softness, emphasis, simplicity ( tarḳīḳ). There are three kinds of tad̲j̲wīd: 1. tartīl, slow recitation; 2. ḥadr, rapid recitation; 3. tadwīr, medium recitation. — Tad̲j̲wīd, “ the adornment of recitation”, has for its object to prevent the tongue making any mistake in the recitation of the divine words. Besides the study of the articulation of consonants it…


(393 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Aḥmad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Sabtī, a holy man famous for his virtues and his miracles, born at Ceuta in 540 (= June 24, 1145—June 12, 1146) and died on Monday Ḏj̲umādā II 6, 601 (= Jan. 31, 1205) at Marrākis̲h̲ where he was buried near the Tāzrūt gate. He studied more particularly under Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Fak̲h̲k̲h̲ār, the pupil of the celebrated Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ of Ceuta. He was eloquent and had no difficulty in convincing his questioners; he was very pious and used to recite the Ḳur…

I. Ibn al-Wardī

(440 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Zain al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿOmar b. al-Muhẓaffar b. ʿOmar b. Abu ’l-Fawāris Muḥammad al-Wardī al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Bakrī, al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, philologist, jurisconsult, litterateur, and poet, born at Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān in 689 = 1290 and died of the plague at Aleppo on Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 27, 749 = March 19, 1349. He studied in his native town, at Ḥamā, Damascus, and Aleppo and while still young acted for a short time as deputy for the ḳāḍī Muḥammed b. al-Naḳīb (d. 745 = 1343). It seems that as a result of a dream he abandoned this office to devote himself to scientific work. He left the following works: 1°. Dīwā…

Kān Wa-Kān

(305 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, the name of one of the seven kinds of modern poetry ( funūn), unknown to the classical authors. It was invented by the people of Bag̲h̲dād and takes its name from the formula used by story-tellers at the beginning of their recitals: “There was once upon a time”. Originally the kān wa-kān was a rhymed tale and it was only later that it was applied to other subjects, especially of moral tendency. In the spoken language it was always in vogue in the east only, especially in its place of origin. The kān wa-kān is a poem composed of strophes of two lines the metre of which is given by the p…

Ibn al-Ḳūṭīya

(494 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzāz b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿĪsā b. Muzāḥim, usually known as Ibn al-Ḳūṭīya “the son of the Gothic woman” because his ancestor ʿĪsā, a freedman of ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, had married a Spanish princess named Sara, a daughter of the Gothic king Oppas (Olemundo, according to Ibn Ḳūtīya) and grand daughter of Witiza. The latter had gone to Damascus to make a complaint to the Caliph His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik against her uncle Ardabast. ʿĪsā was sent with his wife to Spain and his d…


(209 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, al-Ḳūma and al-Ḳawma, one of the seven kinds of poetry created by the moderns. Invented by the people of Bag̲h̲dād under the ʿAbbāsids, it was at first used as a call to announce during Ramaḍan the last moment of the night, at which it is still permitted to eat or drink. The singers said to their colleagues at the end of each night: ḳūmā li-nusaḥḥir ḳūmā “arise! to take thy meal before the dawn of day, arise!” Later, verses were made in this style for vendors of flowers, wine, etc. It does not seem to be true that Abū Nuḳṭa invented the ḳūmā. It is more probable that the form was already in exi…


(397 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Ḥusain b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, born at Diyār Bakr, afterwards took up his abode in Mecca, where he became Ḳāḍī and died some time after 982 (1574). He was a Ḥanbalī or Mālikī. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa. who is followed by Wüstenfeld, says that Diyārbakrī, who completed his Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḵh̲amīs on the 8th S̲h̲aʿbān 940 = 23rd February 1534, died in 966= 1559. But as the various recensions of this work that have survived to us mention the accession of Sulṭān Murād III, which did not take place till 982 (1574), the author cannot have died before this year unless the appendix is the work of a copyist. He w…

Ibn Abī Zaid

(350 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
al-Ḳairawānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Zaid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, a Mālikī jurist, belonged to a family which ¶ came from Nafza whence the ethnic al-Nafzī, but he was born in 310 (922-3) at Ḳairawān, where he died on Monday 30th S̲h̲aʿbān 386 = 14 September 996 and was buried in his house. He vigorously defended his school both in prose and verse and was perhaps the first who clearly expounded the principles of law. He was called Mālik the younger and was and still is regarded as an authority. His teachers were numerous not only in Africa but also…


(715 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū ʿAmr ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Saʿīd b. ʿOmar al-Omawī, born at Cordova in 371 = 981-982 is best known by the name of Abū ʿAmr al-Dānī (of Denia) as he lived for long at Denia, in the province of Valencia. I began my studies, he tells us himself, in 385 (var. 384, 386, ¶ 387) at the age of 14 and set out for the east on Sunday the 2nd Muḥarram 397 = 29th Sept. 1006. After spending four months at Ḳairawān I entered Cairo in the month of S̲h̲awwāl of the same year. In 398 (= 1007) I left Egypt and went to Mecca and Medīna to perform the pilgrimage. I spent the most of these t…


(561 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Mūsā ʿĪsā b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Yalalbak̲h̲t b. ʿĪsā b. Yūmarīlī, belonging to the Berber tribe of Ḏj̲azūla (not Ḏj̲uzūla, as Ibn Ḵh̲allikān says) or better Gazūla (the modern Gazzūla) a branch of the Yazdakts in Southern Morocco is best known by his short introduction ( Muḳaddima) to the study of Arabic grammar, called al-Ḳanūn. After the completion of his early education in Marrākus̲h̲ he went to the east to make the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medīna. In Cairo he attended the lectures of the celebrated philologist Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Barrī and it is even said that his Ḳanūn is merely a…

Ibn Hāniʾ

(629 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (also Abu ’l-Ḥasan) Muḥammad b. Hāniʾ b. Muḥammad b. Saʿdūn al-Azdī, usually called Ibn Hāniʾ al-Andalusī to distinguish him from Ibn Hāniʾ al-Ḥakamī [see Abū nuwās], an Arab poet of Spain. His father Hāniʾ was a native of a village near al-Mahdīya in Tunisia, who had moved to Elvira in Spain or, according to others, to Cordova. Ibn Hāniʾ was born in one of these two towns. He studied in Cordova and then proceeded to Elvira and Seville. In the latter city his frivolous way of living and too free speech broug…

ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā

(633 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā b. ʿIyāḍ al-Yaḥṣubī al-Sabtī al-Mālikī, known as al-Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ, a Mālikī jurist, traditionist, historian, man of letters and poet, born at Ceuta on S̲h̲aʿbān 15, 476 (Dec. 29, 1083) and died at Marrākūs̲h̲,, 7 Ḏj̲umādā II (13 Oct.) or Ramaḍān 11 Dec. 544 (1149). After studying in his native town he went in 507 (1114) to Cordova where he devoted himself particularly to Ḥadīt̲h̲, and attended the lectures of Abū Muḥammed ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAttab and Abu ’l-Walīd Ibn Rus̲h̲d. His teachers numbered a hundred. He returned to …


(504 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmr b, Tamīm al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī, Arab grammarian and philologist, a native of ʿUmān, died at al-Baṣra, aged 75, between 170 and 175 (786 and 791). He studied Islāmic traditions and philology with Aiyūb al-Sak̲h̲tiyānī, ʿĀṣim al-Aḥwal, al-ʿAwwām b. Ḥaws̲h̲ab, etc. On the advice of his master Aiyūb he abandoned the Abāḍi doctrine for Sunnī orthodoxy; he was very pious and lived in poverty. Among his pupils may be mentioned Sībawaih, al-Aṣmaʿī, al-Naḍr b. S̲h̲umail, al-Lait̲h̲ b. ¶ al-Muẓaffar b. Naṣr, etc. All the biographers agree in attributing to him the dis…

Ibn al-Ḳāḍī

(476 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abi ’l-ʿĀfīya al-Miknāsī, known as Ibn al-Ḳāḍī, a descendant of Mūsā b. Abi ’l-ʿĀfiya al-Miknāsī, belonging to the great tribe of Zenāta of Morocco, born in 960 (1552-1553). Jurisconsult, man of letters, historian, poet and above all mathematician, he studied with his father, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Mand̲j̲ūr, al-Ḳaṣṣār, Abū Zakarīyā Yaḥyā al-Sarrād̲j̲, Ibn Mud̲j̲bir al-Massārī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲allāl, Aḥmad Bābā, Abū Muḥammad ʿA…

Ibn al-Sikkīt

(393 words)

Author(s): Ben Cheneb, Moh.
, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿḳūb b. Isḥāḳ, known by the name of Ibn al-Sikkīt, a celebrated philologist and grammarian, belonged to Dawraḳ, a village in al-Ahwāz (Ḵh̲ūzistān), but was apparently born in Bag̲h̲dād. After studying with his father who was an excellent lexicologist, Abū ʿAmr Isḥāḳ b. Murār al-S̲h̲aibānī, al-Farrāʾ, al-Aṣmaʿī Abū ʿUbaida, and others, he went to the Beduins of whom it was then thought that they had best preserved the Arabic language. Returning to Bag̲h̲dād he settled as a teacher in the Bridge…
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