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 Politicall reflections upon the government of the Tvrks

(1,863 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Francis Osborne Date: 1656 Original Language: English Description Francis Osborne’s  Politicall reflections upon the government of the Tvrks was printed in London in 1656 for his Oxford-based publisher, Thomas Robinson. The work is the first of eight essays in the publication, which has 194 pages.  Politicall reflections was republished in 1661, 1662, 1673 and 1683 as a single vol…

 Correspondence with Safiye Sultan

(2,218 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Elizabeth I Date: 1593, 1599 Original Language: Ottoman Turkish Description Safiye Sultan was born in Albania, probably in 1550 because she was 13 in 1563 when Mihrimah, who functioned as Queen Mother ( Vālide sultan) for Selim II, her younger brother, presented her to the then Prince Murad as a concubine. She had been enslaved by pirates, and according to Matar she converted to Islam ( Islam in Britain, pp. 123-4). In 1566, Safiye gave birth to the future sultan, Mehmed III. At this time, Murad’s relationship with Safiye was monogamous, which gave her the status of Khāṣṣekī, chief or favourite companion, a designation that could be extended to either a legal wife, or, as in this case, a concubine. During this period, the sultans rarely took legal wives, preferring concubines chosen for their beauty. After Mehmed’s birth, Safi…

Richard Knolles

(299 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Richard Knolles’s date of birth is unknown. It was probably towards the end of the 1540s, and his place of birth was possibly Cold Ashby, Northamptonshire. Records show that he attended Lincoln College, Oxford, where he graduated BA (1565) and MA (1570). He was elected Fellow, and remained at the college until August 1572. He returned there as a visitor during 1576. Since he was sent to university, his family were probably gentry. Sir Roger Manwood (d. 1592) appointed him headmaster of …

Wynkyn de Worde

(630 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Wynkyn de Worde was an early printer who served as an apprentice to Johannes Veldener in Cologne and then worked with William Caxton following the latter’s visit to Cologne in 1471-72. In 1475 or 1476, de Worde accompanied Caxton to Westminster, where he eventually inherited Caxton’s printshop after Caxton’s death in 1492. Around 1500, he moved his shop to Fleet Street under the ‘sign of the sun’, which he incorporated into his colophon. The first printer to operate from Fleet Street, h…

 A Shorte Declaration of the Mistery of Iniquity

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
The Mistery of Iniquity- Thomas Helwys Date: 1612 Original Language: English Description Believed to have been printed in Amsterdam, this first ever plea for complete religious liberty in English is 21…

John Milton

(2,144 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography John Milton was born at the family home in Bread Street, London, on 20 December 1608, the third child of John and Sara Milton. The senior John Milton, a member of the Company of Scriveners, was also a published composer. Growing up in the Bread Street house, the younger John Milton was surrounded by music and song, and developed an appreciation of both. He learned the organ, the bass viol, and part-singing. Initially educated at home by tutors, he started to write poetry at an early age…

Isaac Barrow

(542 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Isaac Barrow was born in London in October 1630. He was educated at Charterhouse and Felstead, and later at Trinity College, Cambridge. He graduated in 1649, and by the time he took his MA in 1652 he had built up a reputation as an accomplished scholar in mathematics and the natural sciences. His royalist sympathies made it difficult to continue at Cambridge and he left for Paris in 1655. By February 1656, he was in Italy, and then travelled east to Smyrna, moving on to Constantinople that summer. In Turkey, he studied John Chrysostom an…

Thomas Helwys

(686 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Thomas Helwys, a co-founder of the Baptist denomination in Britain, was born in Nottinghamshire into a prosperous family belonging to the landed gentry. The exact date of his birth is unknown. It was probably during 1575, although 1550 is also commonly cited. He enrolled at Gray’s Inn in 1592, and qualif…

 The first anniversary of the government

(1,927 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Andrew Marvell Date: 1655 Original Language: English Description The first anniversary of the government under His Highness the Lord Protector was published anonymously in January 1655. In iambic pentameter and rhyming couplets, it is a poem of 402 lines. It was printed by Thomas Newcombe, formerly printer to the king, in an 18-page broadsheet and was to be sold by Samuel Gellibrand at the Golden Ball in St Paul’s Churchyard. The poem was first credited to Marvell in the 1681 edition of his  Miscellaneous poems, where it appeared as The first anniversary of the government under OC (pp. 1…

 Correspondence with Sultan Murad III

(3,739 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Elizabeth I Date: 1579-95 Original Language: Latin Description Murad III ruled from 1574 until his death in 1595. Court correspondence between Murad and Elizabeth began in 1579 and continued until his death. Murad wrote in Ottoman Turkish, which was translated by a  dragoman into Latin. Eli…

The Life and Death of Mahomet

(28 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations The Life and Death of Mahomet …

Fynes Moryson

(752 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Fynes (also Fines and Fiennes) Moryson (also Morison) was born at Cadeby, Lincolnshire, probably during 1565 or 1566. His father, Thomas, held an important post in the Treasury (he was Clerk of the Pipes) and represented Great Grimsby in Parliament in 1572, 1584, 1586 and 1588-9. Moryson matriculated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, i…

Henry Blount

(590 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Henry Blount (or Blunt) was born on 15 December 1602 at Tyttenhanger, Hertfordshire. His father Thomas, who served for some time as sheriff of Hertfordshire, was knighted in 1603. The Blount family acquired their Tyttenhanger estate from Thomas’s aunt; before the dissolution of the monasteries, it had belonged to St Albans Abbey. Henry was educated at St Alban’s free school and at Trinity College, Oxford, graduating with a BA in 1618. He enrolled at Gray’s Inn, London, and then in 1629 …

Elizabeth I

(892 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton

 Calvino-turcismus, id est calvinisticae perfidiae cum mahometana collatio et utriusque sectæ confutatio

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Calvino-turcismus'"Calvino-turcismus", a comparison of the error of Calvinism with "Muhammadanism" and a refutation of each sect''A rebuttal of Calvinism by refuting the amalgam of Calvinism and Islam' William Rainolds Date: 1597 Original Language: Latin Description Calvino-turcismus is a Latin text of 1,222 pages, divided into four books. The title introduces the novel notion that Calvinism and Islam are so similar that they can be regarded as one combined heresy. Rai…

Francis Osborne

(652 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Francis Osborne (or Osborn) was born on 26 September 1593 on his father’s estate, Chicksands Priory in Bedfordshire, the youngest son of Sir John and Dorothy Osborne. Despite his considerable literary reputation, relatively few biographical details are known. He appears to have been privately educated, and may have travelled in Europe as a teenager (Potter, ‘Introduction’, p. vii). According to Wood, Osborne was employed in London for some time by the Earls of Pembroke, becoming master of the horse (Wood and Bliss, Athenae  Oxonienses, vol. 1, p. 706). Before his fath…

 An account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism

(3,398 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
The originall & progress of Mahometanism- Henry Stubbe Date: 1671-6 Original Language: English Description Henry Stubbe’s book on the rise and progress of Islam was not printed until 1911 (its full title is  An account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism, and a vindication of Mahomet and his religion from the calumnies of the Christians

William Rainolds

(895 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography William Rainolds (also Reynolds) was born around about 1544 in Pinhoe, near Exeter. He was the second of Richard Rainolds’s five sons. An uncle, Thomas, was later warden of Merton College, Oxford, and dean of Exeter. William attended Winchester School, and then New College, Oxford. He became a pro…
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