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 Calvino-turcismus, id est calvinisticae perfidiae cum mahometana collatio et utriusque sectæ confutatio

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Calvino-turcismus'"Calvino-turcismus", a comparison of the error of Calvinism with "Muhammadanism" and a refutation of each sect''A rebuttal of Calvinism by refuting the amalgam of Calvinism and Islam' William Rainolds Date: 1597 Original Language: Latin Description Calvino-turcismus is a Latin text of 1,222 pages, divided into four books. The title introduces the novel notion that Calvinism and Islam are so similar that they can be regarded as one combined heresy. Rainolds supports this argument by referencing accounts of Jews a…

Francis Osborne

(652 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Francis Osborne (or Osborn) was born on 26 September 1593 on his father’s estate, Chicksands Priory in Bedfordshire, the youngest son of Sir John and Dorothy Osborne. Despite his considerable literary reputation, relatively few biographical details are known. He appears to have been privately educated, and may have travelled in Europe as a teenager (Potter, ‘Introduction’, p. vii). According to Wood, Osborne was employed in London for some time by the Earls of Pembroke, becoming master of the horse (Wood and Bliss, Athenae  Oxonienses, vol. 1, p. 706). Before his fath…

Thomas Hobbes

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Thomas Hobbes, often called Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was born on 5 April 1588 in Westport, a parish in Malmesbury, Wiltshire. Members of the Hobbes family had held civic office. His father, Thomas Hobbes, a poorly-paid curate, was later excommunicated due to his behaviour, after which he abandoned the family and died in obscurity. A childless uncle took an interest in Hobbes and financed his schooling. He attended Magdalen Hall, Oxford, graduating with a BA in 1608, and in the same …

 An account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism

(3,398 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
The originall & progress of Mahometanism- Henry Stubbe Date: 1671-6 Original Language: English Description Henry Stubbe’s book on the rise and progress of Islam was not printed until 1911 (its full title is  An account of the rise and progress of Mahometanism, and a vindication of Mahomet and his religion from the calumnies of the Christians), when H.M.K. Shairani edited a version based on one of three complete extant manuscripts (MS Oxford, Bodleian Library – Eng. Misc. c. 309), which Charles Hornby (d. 1739) had copied from an earlier source in 17…

George Sale

(961 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: 1697 Place of Birth: Canterbury, Kent Date of Death: 13 November 1736 Place of Death: Surrey Street, Strand, London BiographyGeorge Sale, son of a London merchant, Samuel Sale, was born in Canterbury, ‘probably ... around 1697’ (Thomson, ‘Sale’, p. 179). The exact date is unknown. Although his earliest biographer states that Sale attended the prestigious King’s School, Canterbury, records do not confirm this (Davenport, ‘Sketch of the life’, p. xi). However, his later accomplishments indicate that he r…

 Remarks upon the manners, religion and government of the Turks

(3,339 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Thomas Smith Date: 1678 Original Language: English Description Remarks upon the manners, religion and government of the Turks: Together with a survey of the seven churches of Asia, as they now lie in their ruines; and a brief description of Constantinople, published in London in 1678, is Thomas Smith’s translation ‘with some enlargements’ of his earlier Latin text,  Epistolae quatuor, quarum duae de moribus ac institutis Turcarum agunt, duae septem Asiae ecclesiarum et Constantinopoleos notitiam continent (1674). This in turn was an expansion of his earlier  Epistolæ duæ: quar…

David Jones

(628 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Probably 1660 Place of Birth: Llwynrhys, Cardiganshire, Wales Date of Death: 1720 Place of Death: Probably Clerkenwell, London BiographyDavid Jones was probably born in or soon after 1660 in Llwynrhys, in the parish of Llanbadarn Odwyn, Cardiganshire, the year that his father John Jones (1640-1722), an early Congregational minister, is believed to have married Margaret Edwards. The Jones’ house was first licensed for nonconformist worship in 1672 and remained in use until 1735 (Gordon,  Freedom after ejection, p. 294). Jones may have attended a grammar schoo…

William Rainolds

(895 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography William Rainolds (also Reynolds) was born around about 1544 in Pinhoe, near Exeter. He was the second of Richard Rainolds’s five sons. An uncle, Thomas, was later warden of Merton College, Oxford, and dean of Exeter. William attended Winchester School, and then New College, Oxford. He became a probationary Fellow in 1560 and a permanent fellow in 1562. In 1563, he graduated with a BA, and took his MA in 1567. At Oxford, he gained a reputation for his debating abilities and for his ‘sincere love to the Protestant cause’ (Wood, Bliss and University of Oxford, Athenae Oxonienses, p. 6…

 Nazarenus: Or, Jewish, gentile, and Mahometan Christianity

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- John Toland Date: 1718 Original Language: English DescriptionJohn Toland’s  Nazarenus: Or, Jewish, gentile, and Mahometan Christianity was published in London in 1718 (references below refer to this edition). A second, revised edition was published later the same year with the same pagination. The work  was also included in the posthumously published  Theological and philosophical works of the late Mr John Toland (1732), edited by Toland’s earliest biographer, Pierre Desmaizeaux (where it begins at p. 104). It consists of a preface (i-xxv), two letter…

 Nauigation and vyages

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Nauigation and vyages- Richard Eden Date: 1576 Original Language: English Description Eden completed his translation of the Latin version of Ludovico di Varthema’s (c. 1470-1517) account of his travels in Arabia, then to India and further east, just before his death in 1576. The Italian version, Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema bolognese, appeared in 1510, the Latin in 1511. Eden’s translation was published posthumously in The historie of travayle into the West and East Indies, the 1577 enlarged version of his Decades of the New Worlde (1555), where it comprises pages 354-421.…

Orientalist tropes, themes and pseudo-Orientalist novels, plays and poetry in 18th-century English literature

(48 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsOrientalist tropes, themes and pseudo-Orientalist novels, plays and poetry in 18th-century English literatureClinton Bennett

 Decades of the Newe Worlde, or West Indies

(1,727 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
De orbe novo decades- Richard Eden Date: 1555 Original Language: English Description Eden’s Decades of the New World gives an English translation of the first three books of Pietro Martire d’Anghiera's Latin De orbe novo decades, using the 1533 edition. It also translates the first part of Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes’s La historia general de las Indias (1535), and gives an abridged account of Ferdinand Magellan’s voyage of circumnavigation. The whole book is 446 pages long, excluding preliminary sections. Written by Eden in a quasi-official c…

 The lives and memorable actions of many illustrious persons of the eastern nations

(899 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- George Sale Date: 1739 Original Language: English Description The lives and memorable actions of many illustrious persons of the eastern nations, such as khalifas, sultans, wazirs, who have distinguish’d themselves, either by war, learning, humanity, justice, etc., extracted from the most authentick Oriental chronologers and historians was published in London in 1739. The main text is 300 pages long. A brief Advertisement at the beginning states that the ‘ingenious Mr. George Sale’ designed and began the work using original manuscripts an…

 Epitome fidei et religiones Turcicæ

(1,372 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
‘Summary of the Turkish faith and religion’ Isaac Barrow Date: 1657 Original Language: Latin Description The Latin treatise,  Epitome fidei et religiones Turcicæ, a Muhameto Kureischita Arabum propheta, prius in Arabia Deserta, postea a successoribus per totum penè Orientem diffusae, was written during 1657, when Barrow was at the British Embassy in Constantinople. He wrote it for Trinity College after receiving a reprimand for his failure to write while on travel leave, ‘to appease his colleagues’ and ‘make up for his long silence’ (Feingold, Before Newton, p. 52). In  Opuscula, it…

Samuel Purchas

(645 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Samuel Purchas was born in Thaxted, Essex, probably in November 1577, since he was baptised on 20 November. He matriculated at St John’s College, Cambridge, in 1594, graduating BA in 1597 and MA in 1600. He was ordained deacon in the Church of England in 1598, and priest in 1601. Later, he received the Lambeth BD (1615), which was incorporated at Oxford the same year. Stubbe cites this as one of only a few Lambeth degrees granted before the Restoration (W. Stubbe, ‘Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: Lambeth degrees’, Gentleman’s Magazine 216 (1864) 633-5, p. 635). After a cu…

Robert Wilson

(502 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Robert Wilson (also spelled Wylson) was probably born during the 1540s, calculating from more certain dates associated with his career. Nothing is known about his parentage or schooling. Given his erudition and writing skill, he presumably received a good education, possibly at a grammar school, although no records of this have been identified. His burial record refers to him as a ‘yeoman’, a designation that was usually reserved for members of the social class immediately below the lan…

 Here after foloweth a lytell treatyse agaynst Mahumet and his cursed secte

(2,201 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Here after foloweth a lytell treatyseIn Mahuetan et eius sectum- Christopher Saint German Date: 1530 or 1531 Original Language: English Description Printed in 1531 and thought anonymous until the recent identification of Christopher St German as author, this polemical tract of 88 pages sets out to refute Islam by presenting it as a form of Christian heresy. Nine chapters follow a two-page introduction. The list of contents is at the back. Chapter 1 covers Muḥammad’s (spelled ‘Mahumet’ throughout) birth, and Chapter 2 purports to describe how Muḥammad set himself up…

Miscellanea Aurea: Or the Golden Medley

(34 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsMiscellanea aurea: Or the golden medleyClinton Bennett

 The Lepanto of James sixt, King of Scotland

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
His Majesties Lepento or, Heroricall Song being part of his Poeticall exercises at vacant hours- James I Date: 1591 Original Language: English Description The Lepanto of James Sixt, King of Scotland is a short epic poem by James when he was still king of Scotland, commemorating the defeat of the Ottoman navy in 1571 by a coalition of Catholic states known as the Holy League, led by Don John of Austria (1547-78). This was the only Ottoman set-back during the 16th century and many Europeans saw it as proof that the Ottomans could be defeated, and even as indicating their demise and imminent end. Wr…

Edward Gibbon

(860 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: 8 May 1737 Place of Birth: Putney, Surrey Date of Death: 16 January 1794 Place of Death: St James Street, London BiographyEdward Gibbon was born on 8 May 1737 in Putney, Surrey, the son of Edward and Judith Gibbon, and was the only one of their six children to survive into adulthood. Mainly educated privately due to ill health, he spent several years at a school in Kingston-upon-Thames (1746-8) and was briefly at Westminster School (1749-50), which his father had attended. Following an improvement in his…
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