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 The Koran, commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed

(4,039 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- George Sale Date: 1734 Original Language: English DescriptionGeorge Sale’s  The Koran, commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed, translated into English immediately from the original Arabic; with explanatory notes, taken from the most approved commentators. To which is prefixed a preliminary discourse was first published in London in 1734 by J. Wilcox. The translation itself is preceded by a ‘Dedication’ to Lord Carteret, an introduction ‘To the reader’, and the long ‘Preliminary discourse’. …

 Relation of a journey

(3,908 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- George Sandys Date: 1615 Original Language: English Description A relation of a journey began an: Dom 1610. Fovre books. Containing a description of the Turkish empire of  Ægypt, of the Holy Land, of the remote parts of Italy, and ilands adioyning, was first published in 1615. A dedication to the then Prince of Wales, who as Charles I would appoint Sandys a gentleman of his privy chamber, follows initial engravings, with a map of the eastern Mediterranean accompanying. Then come the 309 pages of text, divided into four books. The first edition was ‘an expensive folio volume’ (Schleck,  Tell…

Edmund Spenser

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Edmund Spenser was born in London, although his family may have originated from Lancashire. His name o…

Christopher Saint German

(783 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Christopher Saint German was the son of Sir Henry St German and his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Tyndale, of Hockwold, Norfolk. Although a knight, his father appears to have had limited means. A.F Pollard’s entry for St German in the Dictionary of national biography (1885-1900) states that he is said to have attended Exeter College, Oxford, before preparing for the bar at one of the Inns of Chancery in London. He may have moved to London in about 1480, possibly later. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple sometime…

John Foxe

(1,205 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography John Foxe was born in 1516 or 1517 in Boston, Lincolnshire, into a moderately wealthy family. His name is occasionally latinised as Foxus, and the ‘e’ is sometimes dropped. He attended the University of Oxfo…

James I

(2,032 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography James Stuart became the first ‘King of Great Britain’, as he styled himself, when he succeeded his cousin, Elizabeth I, as king of England in 1603, having succeeded his mother, Mary, as King James VI of Scotland in 1567. He ruled England as James I and was the first monarch of the Stuart dynasty. He was descended from Margaret Tudor, King Henry VII’s daughter, through his father, Lord Darnley and also through his mother. Raised by foster parents, the Earl and Countess of Marom in Stirli…

Introduction: Western Europe and Islam in the long 18th century. Demonisation to dialogue

(5,386 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Between England’s Glorious Revolution in 1688 and the end of the long 18th century, marked by the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, there are continuities and discontinues of themes, tropes and images of Muslims in western Europe. Carried over from the 17th century were concerns about Barbary piracy, slavery, and those who ‘turned Turk’. Perceived as less threatening after the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, the Ottoman Empire became a source of interest for reasons other than its threatening military prowess, including ways in which it tolera…

 The faerie queene

(2,135 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
The faerie queeneThe faerie queene disposed into twelve books, fashioning XII. morall vertues Edmund Spenser Date: 1596 Original Language: English Description The faerie queene is an epic poem in six books, each with 12 cantos of 48 stanzas each. The first three books were published as a single volume in 1590, printed in London by William Ponsonbie. These three books, together with three new ones, were printed again in 1596. Spenser planned at least six more, but the work remained unfinished when he died. Most of his …

 The Policie of the Turkish Empire

(1,904 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Giles Fletcher the Elder Date: 1597 Original Language: English Description Printed for William Stansby by John Windet in London in 1597,  The Policie of the Turkish Empire, the first booke comprises 25 chapters, running to 164 pages. Recto pages have signature pagination, although some are unnumbered. The dedication, to Henry Carey, first Baron Hunsdon, Lord Chamberlain of the Queen’s House (sig. A2v t…

John Toland

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: 30 November 1670 Place of Birth: Ardagh, County Donegal, Ireland Date of Death: 11 March 1722 Place of Death: Putney, London BiographyJohn Toland (also Jean and Johannes Toland, and Joannes Tolandus) was born on 30 November 1670 in Ardagh, County Donegal. He later claimed to have been baptised with the name Junius Janus, but called himself John to escape ridicule at school. His parents’ identities are unknown. His father may have been a Catholic priest, but by the age of 16 Toland had become a Protestant…

 Orientalist tropes, themes and pseudo-Orientalist novels, plays and poetry in 18th-century English literature

(9,370 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Orientalist tropes, themes and pseudo-Orientalist novels, plays and poetry in 18th-century English literature Date: - Original Language: English DescriptionThis selection is of 18th-century British and Irish writers whose plays, poems or novels have Oriental allusions that challenged or changed traditional assumed attitudes towards Islam. Various schemes have been developed to discuss Oriental references in English literature, among them Martha Pike Conant’s four groupings of imaginative, moralistic, philosophical and satirical ( The Oriental tale, 1908, p. xxvi)…

 The Generall Historie of the Turkes

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Richard Knolles Date: 1603 Original Language: English Description Richard Knolles’s  The Generall Historie of the Turks (in full,  The Generall Historie of the Turkes, from the first beginning of that nation to the rising of the Othoman familie: with all the notable expeditions of the Christian princes against them. Together with the liues and conquests of the Othoman kings and emperours faithfullie collected out of the- best histories, both auntient and moderne, and digested into one continuat historie vntill this present yeare 1603), the result of 12 years of research and…

 Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed

(2,182 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
- Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed Date: 1735 Original Language: English Description Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed. Occasioned by a late learned translation and exposition of the Koran or Al Koran is a 54-page work published in 1735 by J. Roberts of Warwick Street, London. The author is unknown, and there is nothing in it that points to a possible identity. It draws heavily on George Sale’s  Koran (1734), and was obviously inspired by Sale’s approach to Islam. Like Sale, the author is critical of the view of Muḥamm…

 An itinerary

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Fynes Moryson’s Itinerary- Fynes Moryson Date: 1617 Original Language: English Description Moryson first began work on his Itinerary in about 1598. However, he more or less started again in 1609, setting out to produce a shorter, more publishable version. This was eventually published in 1617, printed in four volumes, divided into three parts (its longer title is  An itinerary vvritten by Fynes Moryson Gent. First in the Latine tongue, and then translated by him into English: containing his ten yeeres trauell through the tvvelve domjnions of Germany,…

 Pansebeia; or a View of all the religions of the world

(3,422 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Pansebeia- Alexander Ross, Hugh Ross, Thomas Ross Date: 1653 Original Language: English Description Alexander Ross’s  Pansebeia, or a View of the religions of the world was first published in 1653. By the end of the century, the text had appeared in six editions (several reprinted) and in Dutch, French and German translations. The 1555, 1658 and 1664 (all Octavo or small folio) editions were bound with  Apocalypsis, ... Faithfully and Impartially translated out of the Latine by J.D. This latter work contains the lives of 17 heretics, including Muḥammad, with copperplate…

Henry Stubbe

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Henry Stubbe (also Stubbs and Stubb), described by Wood, a contemporary and friend, as ‘the most noted Person of his age’ ( Athenae Oxonienses, vol. 3, p. 1068), was the son of an Anglican clergyman. He was born on 28 February 1632 in Partney, Lincolnshire. His father’s Separatist sympathies resulted in his ejection from his living, after which the family moved to Ireland. When the 1641 Irish uprising broke out, Henry’s mother took him and another of her children to safety in London, where she supported herse…

Richard Eden

(1,460 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Richard Eden was born in about 1520 or 1521, possibly in Herefordshire, into a merchant family, although some of his relatives were ordained. He went to Cambridge in 1534. Biographers speculate that he had a clerical career in mind. He attended Christ’s College, then Queens’ College, graduating with a BA in 1538. At Cambridge, he was taught and influenced by Sir Thomas Smith (1515-77), professor of civil law from 1542 until 1553, later a secretary of state and ambassador to France. Smit…

John Hughes

(553 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: 29 January 1677 Place of Birth: Marlborough, Wiltshire Date of Death: 17 February 1720 Place of Death: London BiographyJohn Hughes was born in Marlborough, Wiltshire, on 29 January 1677, and was named John after his father, who worked as a clerk for a London insurance company. The Hughes family were non-conformists, so John attended a dissenting academy run by Thomas Rowe (d. 1705), whose ‘free philosophy’ approach to teaching abandoned traditional texts. Rowe taught many students who later became public figures. Hughes found employment in the Ordnance Office, bu…

Reflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of Mohammed

(38 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Date of Death: Place of Death: Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim RelationsReflections on Mohammedanism and the conduct of MohammedClinton Bennett

Thomas Herbert

(709 words)

Author(s): Bennett, Clinton
Biography Thomas Herbert was born in York in late 1606 into a prominent merchant family of Welsh origin. Although his father Christopher (d. 1625) was unsuccessful commercially, Herbert benefitted from his wealthy grandfather’s estate. In 1621, he began legal studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, from where he later transferred to Jesus College, Oxford. Enrolment at one of the Inns of Court probably followed. There are no records of his attending any of these institutions, although Wood and Bliss include his biography in  Athenae Oxonienses. By 1626, through family connection…
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