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Identity

(555 words)

Author(s): Berghoff, Peter
The concept of identity derives from the philosophical tradition, in which it represents most especially a logical predicate. Thus, a subject can be attributed the predicate of identity when, in various perspectives and states of affairs, it can be identified always as the same subject. Two subjects ( x and y) are identical, then, in virtue of the principle of (non)contradiction, when all qualities of x also pertain to y ( x = y). In today's linguistic usage, identity has mainly become a concept of psychology and the social sciences: there it is used principally in t…

Collective Representations

(4,131 words)

Author(s): Berghoff, Peter
Collectives as Produced Community 1. Collectives—insofar as this concept is not used to designate all groups, communities, crowds, unions, and gatherings of individuals—denotes ‘produced communities’ whose bond need not be presented in a real assembly or physical co-presence. They may come to manifestation only indirectly, through symbols, institutions, representations, and through the processes of power and government linked with them. The concept of representation is usually applied in the meaning of ‘presentation,’ ‘display,’ ‘portrayal,’ ‘image,’ or ‘su…