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Lit̲h̲ām

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) (sometimes also pronounced lifām), the mouth-veil, is a piece of material with which the Beduins concealed the lower part of the face, the mouth and sometimes also part of the nose (see the commentary on Ḥarīrī, ed. de Sacy, Paris 1821, p. 374, 2). It served the practical purpose of protecting the organs of respiration from heat and cold as well as against the penetration of dust (cf. Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma, N°. 5, 43, also N°. 39, 24, and 73, 16; and the commentaries on Mutanabbī, p. 464, 27 and Ḥarīrī…

S̲h̲ahīd

(1,960 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), witness, martyr (pl. s̲h̲uhadāʾ) is often used in the Ḳurʾān (as is s̲h̲āhid [q. v.], plur. s̲h̲uhūd, from which it is not definitely distinguished) in the primary meaning of witness. The following examples are typical of the various contexts in which it occurs: Sūra, ii. 127: “Or were ye eye-witnesses when Jacob was at the point of death and he said to his sons”.… Sūra, xxiv. 6: “Those who slander their wives and have no witness except themselves” …Sūra, ii. 137: “And thus we have made you a people in the…

Refīʿī

(553 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, an Ottoman poet and Ḥurūfī. Of Refīʿī’s life we only have a few hints from himself; the Ottoman biographers and historians do not seem to mention him at all. He himself describes how in his youth he studied many branches of knowledge but did not know what he should believe, and how sometimes he turned to the Sunna, sometimes to philosophy and sometimes to ¶ materialism. He often travelled a great distance to visit a particular scholar but always was disappointed. The poet Nesīmī [q. v.] was the first to teach him the grace of God and the truth, and ordered …

Maks

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, toll, customs duty, is a loanword in Arabic and goes back to the Aramaic maksā, cf. Hebrew mekes and Assyr. miksu; from it is formed a verb m-k-s I, II, III and makkās, the collector of customs. According to the Arabic tradition preserved in Ibn Sīda even in the Ḏj̲āhilīya there were market-dues called maks so that the word must have entered Arabic very early. It is found in Arabic papyri towards the end of the first century a. h. Becker has dealt with the history of the maks, especially in Egypt, and we follow him here. The old law books use maks in the sense of ʿus̲h̲r, the tenth levied by the mer…

Ḳalansuwa

(803 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ḳulansiya (a.), the name for a cap which was worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. The word, from which verbal forms are derived as denominative verbs, is apparently of foreign origin; while it used to be commonly connected with the Latin calautica, for which, however, the form calantica is difficult to quote — and besides it means a head-cloth for women —, Fraenkel wishes to derive it through the Aramaic (cf. Arabic ḳāliṣ, ḳālis, Dozy, Supplément ii., 395) from κῶνοΣ ( conus). The Arab grammarians and lexicographers have found in the manifold formation …

Sunbulzāde Wehbī

(1,243 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet and scholar of the latter half of the eighteenth century. Meḥmed b. Rās̲h̲id b. Meḥmed Efendi Wehbī was born in Marʿas̲h̲ in the province of Aleppo; he belonged to the prominent local family of Sunbulzāde, which had already produced several ¶ muftīs including the grandfather of our poet, Meḥmed, muftī in Marʿas̲h̲ and author of several works including the S̲h̲ērḥ al-As̲h̲bāh al-musammā bi-Tawfīḳi ’llāh, Nūr al-ʿ-Ain and Kitāb al-Tanzīhāt. His father Rās̲h̲id also was a learned man and collaborated in Aleppo with the poet Saiyid Wehbī. As one of the …

Turban

(9,320 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, the headdress of males in the Muslim east, consisting of a cap with a length of cloth wound round it. The name turban is found in this form in European languages only (English turban, turband; French turban, tulban; German Turban; Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, turbante; Dutch tulband; Rumanian tulipan; all going back to older forms with o: tol(l)iban, tolipan, tolopan, tourbant, tourban, torbante) and is usually traced to the Persian dulband, from which is also said to be derived the word tulip (cf. Meyer-Lübke, Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Heidelberg 1911, p. 682, …

Muḥammad Zaʿīm

(635 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish historian. All that we know of his life is gleaned from his works. He was born in 939 (1532) for he tells us that at the accession of Sulṭān Murād III, i. e. in 982 (1574), he was 43. At the early age of eleven he took part in the campaign of 950 (1543) along with his elder brother Perwāne Ag̲h̲a, who at that time was Ḳapud̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ to the Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg of Lepanto, Yaḥyā Pas̲h̲a Og̲h̲lu Aḥmad Beg. When the latter, after the capture of Stuhlweissen. burg, was appointed Sand̲j̲aḳ …

Kāfir

(1,857 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), originally “obliterating, covering”, then, “concealing benefits received” = “ungrateful”; this meaning is found even in the old Arab poetry and in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xxvi. 18. In the Ḳurʾān the word is used with reference to God: “concealing God’s blessings” = “ungrateful to God”, see Sūra xvi. 57 and xxx. 33: “That they are ungrateful for our gifts”; cf. also Sūra, xvi. 85. The next development — probably under ¶ the influence of the Syriac and Aramaic where the corresponding development took place earlier — is the more general meaning of “infidel” which is f…

Tād̲j̲

(2,041 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), Crown. A Persian loanword in Arabie going back to the Old Persian * tag; cf. Armenian ʿtag, Aramaic taga. From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲, “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologic, Strassburg 1893, p. 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die per she hen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen 1919, p. 74, 84; Fraenkel, Die aramāischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Ley den 1886, p. 62). Like the name, the thing itself comes from old Persia. The form o…

Yaḥyā

(911 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet of Albanian origin of the time of Soliman. A scion of the noble north Albanian family of Dukagin, to which also belonged the Turkish poet Dukagin-zāde Aḥmad Bey, Yaḥyā was taken under the dews̲h̲irme for the Janissaries and brought to Stambul. He himself speaks in his Gend̲j̲īne-i Rāz of his being conscripted in this way, a thing that was only to bring him good and when an old man he still recalls his Albanian origin. In Stambul he was put in the corps of ʿAd̲j̲emi-Og̲h̲lan, in which officers for the Janissaries and Spahis were …

Wahbī

(713 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, a Turkish poet, usually called Saiyid Wahbī to distinguish him from Sünbülzāde Wahbī [q. v.]. He was a contemporary of Nedīm and like him a native of Stambul. His father Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Aḥmed, the kiaya of Imāmzāde, Ḳāḍī of Yenis̲h̲ehir, claimed to be descended from the Prophet through a certain Ḥusām al-Dīn. After the latter, his son Ḥusain, our poet, was at first given the nisba Ḥusāmī but then, on the suggestion of Aḥmed Nailī, the man of letters, given instead the nisba Wahbī, since it was a gift of God ( wehb) that he combined in himself descent from the Prophet ( saiyidlik) with the gift of p…

Rewānī

(770 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, an Ottoman poet. His real name was Ilyās or S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ and he belonged to Adrianople. He is said to have taken his pen-name of Rewānī from the river Tand̲j̲a which flowed past ( rewān) his garden. He entered the service of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II (1481—1512) in Stambul and was sent by him as administrator of the ṣurre, the annual sum for the poor of Mecca and Medīna, to the holy cities to distribute the money. He embezzled a part of it however and on the accusation of the Meccans his salary was stopped; a malady of the eyes, which then affected Rewānī, w…

Rāsim

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Aḥmad, a Turkish writer born in 1283 (1866—1867) in Ṣari̊ Güzel. He early lost his father Bahāʾ al-Dīn and was brought up by his mother. In 1292 (1875) he entered the famous school.Dār al-S̲h̲efaḳa in Stambul, which he left in 1300 (1883) with the leaving certificate. ¶ Already in his last years at school he showed a fondness for art and literature and therefore decided to become a writer, and to this profession, or, as he himself calls it: the Sublime Porte Road ( Bāb-i ʿālī Ḏj̲āddesi), he has remained faithful, untroubled by all the political changes that have taken place. Lik…

Mans̲h̲ūr

(1,576 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) means literally “spread out” (as in the Ḳurʾān xvii. 14 and lii. 3; opposite maṭwī “folded”), or not sealed (opposite mak̲h̲tūm) hence means a certificate, an edict, a diploma of appointment, and particularly a patent granting an appanage. In Egypt in the early Arab period mans̲h̲ūr seems to be a name for the passes which the government compelled the fellāḥīn to have in order to check the flight of colonists from the land, which threatened to become overwhelming ( Ḏj̲āliya, cf. above, ii., p. 14a and 994a). In any case in the Führer durch die Ausstellung (Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer), N°. 6…