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(1,287 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) (sometimes also pronounced lifām ), the mouth-veil, is a piece of material with which the Bedouins concealed the lower part of the face, the mouth and sometimes also part of the nose (see the commentary on al-Ḥarīrī, ed. de Sacy, Paris 1821, 374, 2). According to the LA, lifām is a mouth-veil which also covers the nose top ( arnabat al-anf) and is worn by women. It served the practical purpose of protecting the organs of respiration from heat and cold as well as against the penetration of dust (cf. D̲h̲u ’l-Rumma, no. 5, 43, also no. 39, 24 and 73, 1…

Meḥmed Zaʿīm

(651 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ottoman Turkish historian. All that we know of his life has to be gleaned from his works. He was born in 1939/1532, for he tells us that at the accession of Sultan Murād III, i.e. in 982/1574, he was 43. At the early age of eleven he took part in the campaign of 950/1543, along with his elder brother Perwāne Ag̲h̲a, who at that time was Ḳapud̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ , to the Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg of Lepanto, Yaḥyā Pas̲h̲a-Og̲h̲lu Aḥmad Beg. When the latter, after the capture of Stuhlweissenburg, was appointed Sand̲j̲aḳ Beg there, the brothers seemed to have remained in his service, probably till 952/…


(1,746 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.) means literally “spread out” (as in Ḳurʾān, XVII, 14, and LII,3: opposite, maṭwī “folded”), or “not sealed” (opposite, mak̲h̲tūm ) hence it comes to mean a certificate, an edict, a diploma of appointment, and particularly, a patent granting an appanage (pl. manās̲h̲īr ). In Egypt in the early Arab period, mans̲h̲ūr seems to be a name for the passes which the government compelled the fellāḥīn to have in order to check the flight of colonists from the land, which threatened to become overwhelming ( d̲j̲āliya ). In any case, in the ¶ Führer durch die Ausstellung ( Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer


(1,761 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a), cutting off. The Arabie verb ḳaṭaʿa has been very widely used in a variety of literal and metaphorical senses; this diversity is often of interest for both religious and cultural history. The infinitive ḳaṭʿ does not occur in the Ḳurʾān, but the finite verb occurs both in the literal and in a rather metaphorical sense: Sūra V, 42 (38): “Cut off the hands of the thief and the female thief”—the well-known prescription which has passed into fiḳh and is sometimes briefly designated as ḳaṭʿ al-liṣṣ ; Sūra VIII, 7: “and [Allah] may cut off the root of the Infidels”, i.e., extirpate them. Sūra I…


(501 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, an Ottoman poet and Ḥurūfī [see Ḥurūfiyya ]. Of Refīʿī’s life we only have a few hints from himself; the Ottoman biographers and historians do not seem to mention him at all. He himself describes how in his youth he studied many branches of knowledge but did not know what he should believe, and how sometimes he turned to the Sunna, sometimes to philosophy and sometimes to materialism. He often travelled a great distance to visit a particular scholar but always was disappointed. The poet Nesīmī [ q.v.] was the first to teach him the grace of God and the truth, and ordered him to t…


(2,152 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), crown, a Persian loanword in Arabic going back to the Old Persian * tag ; cf. Armenian tʿag , Aramaic tāḡā . From it are formed in Arabic the broken plural tīd̲j̲ān and the corresponding verb t-w-d̲j̲ , forms II “to crown”, V “to be crowned”, and tāʾid̲j̲ , “crowned” (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie , Strassburg 1893, 81; Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch , Göttingen 1919, 74, 84, Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen , Leiden 1886, 62). Like the name, the object itself comes from …


(1,956 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), originally “obliterating, covering”, then, “concealingbenefits received” = “ungrateful”; this meaning is found even in the old Arab poetry and in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra XXVI, 18. In the Ḳurʾān the word is used with reference to God: “concealing God’s blessings” = “ungrateful to God”, see Sūra XVI, 57 and XXX, 33: “That they are ungrateful for our gifts”; cf. also Sūra XVI, 85. The next development— probably under the influence of the Syriac and Aramaic where the corresponding development took pl…


(9,444 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, the common Turkish pronunciation of Persian Dulband , a sash or wrapper for the head, thence turban, the typical form of traditional headdress in the eastern Islamic lands, the Iranian world, and the Muslim and Sikh parts of the Indian subcontinent. The turban of English, French and German, the turbante of Spanish and Italian, etc., come via forms like tulband , tulbant ; in French and Italian the word is attested from the later 15th century, and in English from the mid-16th century. See Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson . A glossary of Anglo-Indian words and phrases 2, London 1903, 943-4. It s…

Aḥmad Rāsim

(964 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Turkish writer, b. 1864 in Sari̊güzel or Sari̊gez, a quarter of Fātiḥ, Istanbul, d. 21 Sept. 1932 in the island of Heybeliada and buried there. In early life he lost his father Bahā al-Dīn, who belonged to the family of Mentes̲h̲-og̲h̲lu from Cyprus, and was brought up by his mother. ¶ From 1292/1875 to 1300/1882-3 he attended the school Dār ül-S̲h̲afaḳa in Istanbul, where he was attracted to art and literature and decided to become a writer; and to this profession (or, as he himself calls it, “the Sublime Porte Road”, Bāb-i ʿĀlī Ḏj̲addesi ) he remained faithful th…


(677 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Turkish “the man with the Ḳavuḳ ”, a character of the Turkish Orta oyunu theatre. Turkish ḳavuḳ indicates a rather high, variously-shaped cap, with a headband, ṣari̊ḳ , wound round it (Ağakay, Türkçe sözlük: sarık sarılan başlık ). Such caps of varying shape and colour according to rank were worn by officers of the Janissaries (cf. Maḥmūd S̲h̲ewket, ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ tes̲h̲kīlāt ve ḳiyāfet-i ʿaskeriyyesi , ¶ Istanbul 1325, i, 29 ff.). Other professions too had their own special ḳavuḳ, there were wezīr , mollā , kātib and pas̲h̲ali̊ḳ ḳavug̲h̲u , some with specific names: kallāvī , k̲h̲orasānī


(1,527 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, toll, customs duty, is a loanword in Arabic and goes back to the Aramaic maksā , cf. Hebrew mekes and Assyr. miksu ; from it is formed a verb m-k-s I, II, III and makkās , the collector of customs. According to the Arabic tradition preserved in Ibn Sīda, even in the D̲j̲āhiliyya there were marketdues called maks , so that the word must have entered Arabic very early. It is found in Arabic papyri towards the end of the 1st century A.H. C. H. Becker dealt with the history of the maks, especially in Egypt, and we follow him here. The old law books use maks in the sense of ʿus̲h̲r , the…


(2,063 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
(a.), trousers. Trousers are not originally an Arab garment but were introduced, probably from Persia. From quite early times, other people have copied the thing and the name from the Persians and it almost looks as if Persia were the original home of trousers (cf. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden , 136, n. 3). The Greek σαράβαρα or σαρβαλλα, Latin sarabala (perhaps also Aramaic sarbālīn , Daniel, iii, 21; cf. Syriac s̲h̲arbālīn ) and the Arabic sirwāl are all derived from old Persian zārawāro , the modern Persian s̲h̲alwār (which is explained as from s̲h̲al


(844 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ḳulansiya (a), the name for a cap worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. The word, from which verbal forms are derived as denominative verbs, is apparently of foreign origin; while it used to be commonly connected with the Latin calautica (for which, however, the form calantica is difficult to quote and besides, it means a headcloth for women), Fraenkel wished to derive it through the Aramaic . w. l. ś (cf. Arabic ḳāli , ḳālis , Dozy, Supplément, ii, 395) from κῶνος ( conus ). The Arab grammarians and lexicographers found in the manifo…


(935 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
, an Ottoman poet. His real name was Ilyās S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Čelebī, his father’s name was ʿAbd Allāh (ʿAbdullāh), and he was born ca. 1475 and educated in Edirne (Abdülkadir Karahan, art. Revani İA ). Tradition has it that he took his pen-name of Rewānī from the river Tund̲j̲a, which flowed ( rewān ) past his garden. He entered the service of Sultan Bāyezīd II (886-918/1481-1512) in Istanbul, and was sent by him as administrator of the ṣurre (the annual sum set aside for the poor of Mecca and Medina) to the Holy Cities in order to distribute the money. …

Sünbül-Zāde Wehbī

(869 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
(modern Tkish. Sünbülzade Vehbi), Meḥmed b. Rās̲h̲id b. Meḥmed Efendi, Ottoman poet, scholar and bureaucrat born in Marʿas̲h̲ [ q.v.] probably in 1133/1718-19, died in Istanbul 14 Rabīʿ I 1224/29 April 1809, his life spanning the rule of eight Ottoman sultans, and is thought to have been buried outside Edirne Ḳapi̊ (see Süreyya Ali Beyzâdeoğlu, Sünbülzâde Vehbi , Istanbul 1993, 7, 20-1). 1. Life. The Sünbül-zāde family was a prominent one. His grandfather Meḥmed was muftī in Marʿas̲h̲ and author of several works on Islamic law. His father Rās̲h̲id…


(321 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), intact, sound, i.e. free of damage or blemish, thus "well" as opposed to "ill," and therefore a synonym of ṣaḥīḥ . The word is used as a technical term in various fields: 1. Applied to money, sālim means unclipped coins of full weight, or a sum of money free from charges and deductions. 2. In grammar, it denotes two things: in ṣarf (morphology) a "sound" root, i.e., one in which none of the radicals is a "weak" letter ( ḥarfʿilla , see ḥurūf al-hid̲j̲āʾ ), nor a hamza , nor a geminate; in naḥw (syntax) a word with a "sound" ending, no matter whether the preced…


(17,714 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Reychmann, J. | Zajaczkowski, A.
i.— Classical arabic 1) Diplomatic has reached the status of a special science in the West, and the results of such research are accessible in good manuals (like Harry Bresslau’s Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien , 2nd. ed. 1931). Much less work has been done on Arabic documents: the material is very scattered, and not yet sufficiently collated to permit detailed research. Yet Arabic documents have aroused interest for some considerable time: a number have been published, and the editing o…