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Ḳalansuwa

(844 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W.
, Ḳulansiya (a), the name for a cap worn by men either under the turban proper or alone on the head. The word, from which verbal forms are derived as denominative verbs, is apparently of foreign origin; while it used to be commonly connected with the Latin calautica (for which, however, the form calantica is difficult to quote and besides, it means a headcloth for women), Fraenkel wished to derive it through the Aramaic . w. l. ś (cf. Arabic ḳāli , ḳālis , Dozy, Supplément, ii, 395) from κῶνος ( conus ). The Arab grammarians and lexicographers found in the manifo…

Rewānī

(935 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
, an Ottoman poet. His real name was Ilyās S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Čelebī, his father’s name was ʿAbd Allāh (ʿAbdullāh), and he was born ca. 1475 and educated in Edirne (Abdülkadir Karahan, art. Revani İA ). Tradition has it that he took his pen-name of Rewānī from the river Tund̲j̲a, which flowed ( rewān ) past his garden. He entered the service of Sultan Bāyezīd II (886-918/1481-1512) in Istanbul, and was sent by him as administrator of the ṣurre (the annual sum set aside for the poor of Mecca and Medina) to the Holy Cities in order to distribute the money. …

Sünbülzāde Wehbī

(868 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
(turc moderne Sünbülzade Vehbi), Meḥmed b. Rās̲h̲id b. Meḥmed Efendi, poète, savant et fonctionnaire ottoman né à Marʿas̲h̲ [ q.v.] probablement en 1133/1718-19, m. à Istanbul le 14 rabīʿ I 1224/29 avril 1809. Il connut de son vivant huit sultans ottomans, et aurait été enterré aux environs d’Edirne Ḳapi̊ (voir Süreyya Ali Beyzâdeoğlu, Sünbülzâde Vehbi, Istanbul 1993, 20-1). 1. Sa vie. La famille Sünbülzāde était une famille de notables. Son grand-père Meḥmed était muftī à Marʿas̲h̲ et auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de droit islamique. Son père Rās̲h̲id (ou Res̲h̲īd), …

Rewānī

(920 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
, poète ottoman. Son vrai nom était Ilyās S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Čelebī, celui de son père ʿAbd Allāh (ʿAbdullāh ). Il naquit vers 1475 et fut élevé à Edirne (Abdülkadir Karahan, IA, art. Revani). La tradition veut qu’il ait emprunté son nom de plume de Rewānī à la rivière Tund̲j̲a, qui «coulait» ( rewān) audelà de son jardin. U entra au service du sultan Bāyezīd II (886-916/1481-1512) à Istanbul, et fut envoyé aux Lieux Saints comme administrateur de la ṣurra (bourse annuelle destinée aux pauvres de la Mekke et de Médine) pour distribuer l’argent. Cependant, accusé par les Mekkois…

Sünbül-Zāde Wehbī

(869 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Burrill, Kathleen
(modern Tkish. Sünbülzade Vehbi), Meḥmed b. Rās̲h̲id b. Meḥmed Efendi, Ottoman poet, scholar and bureaucrat born in Marʿas̲h̲ [ q.v.] probably in 1133/1718-19, died in Istanbul 14 Rabīʿ I 1224/29 April 1809, his life spanning the rule of eight Ottoman sultans, and is thought to have been buried outside Edirne Ḳapi̊ (see Süreyya Ali Beyzâdeoğlu, Sünbülzâde Vehbi , Istanbul 1993, 7, 20-1). 1. Life. The Sünbül-zāde family was a prominent one. His grandfather Meḥmed was muftī in Marʿas̲h̲ and author of several works on Islamic law. His father Rās̲h̲id…

Sālim

(321 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), intact, sound, i.e. free of damage or blemish, thus "well" as opposed to "ill," and therefore a synonym of ṣaḥīḥ . The word is used as a technical term in various fields: 1. Applied to money, sālim means unclipped coins of full weight, or a sum of money free from charges and deductions. 2. In grammar, it denotes two things: in ṣarf (morphology) a "sound" root, i.e., one in which none of the radicals is a "weak" letter ( ḥarfʿilla , see ḥurūf al-hid̲j̲āʾ ), nor a hamza , nor a geminate; in naḥw (syntax) a word with a "sound" ending, no matter whether the preced…

Sālim

(300 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), intact, sain, exempt de dommage ou de tare, et partant «en bonne santé» par opposition à «malade», donc synonyme de ṣaḥīḥ. Le mot est employé comme terme technique dans divers domaines: (1) Appliqué à la monnaie, sālim désigne les pièces de poids réglementaire et non rognées, ou une somme d’argent exempte de charges et de prélèvements. (2) En grammaire, le mot désigne deux choses: en matière de morphologie ( ṣarf), une racine «saine», c.à-d. ne renfermant ni radicale «faible» (harf ʿilla, voir Ḥurūf al-Hid̲j̲āʾ, ni hamza, ni géminée; en matière de syntaxe ( naḥw), un mot à terminai…

Diplomatic

(17,714 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Reychmann, J. | Zajaczkowski, A.
i.— Classical arabic 1) Diplomatic has reached the status of a special science in the West, and the results of such research are accessible in good manuals (like Harry Bresslau’s Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien , 2nd. ed. 1931). Much less work has been done on Arabic documents: the material is very scattered, and not yet sufficiently collated to permit detailed research. Yet Arabic documents have aroused interest for some considerable time: a number have been published, and the editing o…

Diplomatique

(17,392 words)

Author(s): Björkman, W. | Colin, G. S. | Busse, H. | Reychmann, J. | Zajaczkowski, A.
I. — Arabe classique. 1. Tandis que la diplomatique a depuis longtemps acquis en Occident le statut de science indépendante dont les résultats sont consignés dans de bons manuels (p. ex. Harry Bresslau, Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien, 2e éd. 1931), les documents arabes n’ont été soumis que parcimonieusement à une investigation scientifique; cela découle du fait que les matériaux sont trop dispersés et insuffisamment étudiés pour permettre des recherches détaillées. Pourtant, les documents arabes ont depuis long…
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