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(1,986 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S. A.
, Abū ʿAlī Muḥmmad b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Muẓaffar , literary critic and philologist of the 4th/10th century, who died in Bag̲h̲dād on 27 Rabīʿ II 388/26 April 998. Though the name of his father is sometimes given as al-Ḥusayn, the testimony of Abū ʿAlī al-Muḥassin al-Tanūk̲h̲ī ( Nis̲h̲wār al-muḥāḍara , ed. ʿA. al-S̲h̲ālid̲j̲ī, Beirut 1391-3/1971-3, iii, 14) and of al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī, who received traditions from al-Ḥātimī through Abū ʿAlī’s son, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Tanūk̲h̲ī (see Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād , ii, 214, 356, xi, 231) can probably be trusted. …


(1,532 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
( k̲h̲aṭīb dimas̲h̲ḳ ), d̲j̲alāl al-dīn abū ʿabd allāh muḥammad b. ʿabd al-raḥmān b. ʿumar (666-739/1268-1338), Chief ḳāḍī , in Syria and Egypt and author of two famous compendiums on rhetoric. Almost nothing is known about his early life. Most biographers mention that he was born in Mosul and that his elder brother, Imām al-Dīn ʿUmar, was born in Tabrīz in 653/1255. If it is true that the two brothers were related to ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Rāfiʿī (d. 623/1266; see Brockelmann, I, 393, S I, 678), as is reported by Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, al-Muk̲h̲taṣar fī ak̲h̲bār al-bas̲h̲ar (Cair…


(3,383 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), plur. ḳawāfin , term in prosody, meaning “rhyme”. Goldziher ( Abh . zur Arabischen Philologie , Leiden 1896, i, 83-105; cf. R. Blachère, Deuxième contribution, in Arabica vi (1959), 141) has shown that the word meant originally “lampoon”, then “line of poetry”, “poem” and, that these earlier senses survived in Islamic times after the word had also come to be used in the technical sense of “rhyme”. He derives ḳāfiya from ḳafan , “nape of the neck” (and the corresponding verb ḳafā , “to hit the nape of the neck”) and draws attention to passages in whi…

Aws b. Ḥad̲j̲ar

(288 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, the greatest pre-Islamic poet of the tribe of Tamīm;al-Aṣmaʿī frequently praises and comments on his poetry; in contrast the early anthologies, except the Ḥamāsa of al-Buḥturī, do not mention him at all. Whether al-Farazdaḳ, when he boasts of having "inherited from the family of Aws a tongue like poison", means our poet, cannot be ascertained. Fragments of some length do not appear before the time of Ibn al-Sikki̊t, who probably wrote a commentary to his dīwān , and quotes him in his lexicographical work. With the early critics Aws was famous for his description of the (wild) …


(494 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, “end, conclusion”, a term in rhetoric. In Ḳazwīnī’s Talk̲h̲īṣ al-miftāḥ (published under the title Matn al-talk̲h̲īṣ , Cairo n.d., 126-7), its extended version, the Īḍāḥ (ed. Muḥ. ʿAbd al-Munʿim K̲h̲afād̲j̲ī, Cairo 1369/1950, vi, 153-4), the various works based on the Talk̲h̲īṣ , as well as in some earlier texts, the intihāʾ is mentioned along with the ibtidāʾ , “introduction”, “prologue” [ q.v.], and the tak̲h̲alluṣ , “transition” [ q.v.], as one of the three sectons of the poem or prose composition (some mention also the k̲h̲uṭba , “sermon”) which should …


(4,896 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, term in rhetoric commonly used in the sense of metaphor. This term is among those most frequently discussed by authors of all periods and it is impossible to give a complete account of all definitions, Systems of classification, and technical terms, many of which are found in texts that do not specifically deal with rhetoric. The following is an attempt to outline the views of some representative authors. In the early period the term istiʿāra is used occasionally in the sense of “borrowing of a theme by one author from another” (see, for instance, Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, al-ʿIḳd al-fārid


(760 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), also called īhām , roughly “double entendre”, “Doppelsinnwitz”, a frequently discussed figure in Arabic literary theory. Based on is̲h̲tirāk , homonymy, the figure depends on the “nearer” meaning ( maʿnā ḳarīb ) of a noun, ad̲j̲ective, or a verbal form “hiding” ( warrā ) the “farther” meaning ( maʿnā baʿīd ) intended by the poet. Personal names and place names may also hide this farther meaning. The tawriya is also known by a confusing number of other names: tawhīm , tak̲h̲yīl [ q.v.], tawd̲j̲īh , mug̲h̲ālaṭa maʿnawiyya , etc. Probably the first scholar to devote a monograph to the tawri…


(4,299 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
b. D̲j̲aʿfar al-Kātib al-Bag̲h̲dādī , Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ , philologist, historian, and one of the first scholars to introduce the systematic study of the figures of speech in Arabic literature. The date of his birth is nowhere mentioned and may have been as early as around the year 260/873-4. He died at an uncertain date which is variously given as “during the reign of al-Muḳtadir” (i.e. not later than 320/932), 328/939-40, and 337/948. The dates “shortly after 300” and 310 cannot be correct (see below). Almost every aspect of Ḳudāma’s biography, his work, and his personality as a…


(730 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, improvising, extemporizing a poem or a speech. Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ ( ʿUmda , i, 131), followed by Azdī ( Badāʾiʿ , p. 5 of the Būlāḳ ed.) connects the term with the meaning “to be easy”, “to flow down” implied in the expression s̲h̲aʿr rad̲j̲il , “lank hair”, or with irtid̲j̲āl al-biʾr , “descending into a well on one’s feet”, i.e., without the help of a rope, and the synonym of irtid̲j̲āl , badīha , with the root badaʾa , “to begin”, substituting hāʾ for hamza . According to these two authors, the difference between irtid̲j̲āl and badīha is that whereas in the case of irtid̲j̲āl the poet does not prepa…


(558 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad al-G̲h̲arnāṭī (or al-Ilbīrī) al-Mālikī, d. 779/1377, Andalusī scholar, author of al-Ḥulla al-siyarāʾ , a voluminous commentary on the Badīʿiyya (a poem praising the Prophet Muḥammad while illustrating the badīʿ [ q.v.]) of his companion, Ibn D̲j̲ābir (d. 780/1378-9). The Badīʿiyya itself and important grammatical and lexicographical sections of the book have been published by ʿAlī Abū Zayd, Beirut 1405/1985, but numerous historical and geographical data, poetry, as well as a wealth of information in the domain of adab [ q.v.] in the widest sense of the te…


(438 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, introduction, prologue, a term in rhetoric. In Ḳazwīnī’s Talk̲h̲īṣ al-miftāḥ (published under the title Matn al-talk̲h̲īṣ , Cairo n.d., 125 and 127), its extended version, the Īḍāḥ (ed. Muḥ. ʿAbd al-Munʿim K̲h̲afād̲j̲ī, vi, 147-50, 154), and the various works based on the Talk̲h̲īṣ , the ibtidāʾ is mentioned, along with the tak̲h̲alluṣ , “transition” [ q.v.], and the intihāʾ , “conclusion” [ q.v.], as one of the three sections of the poem or composition which should receive particular attention and should conform to certain criteria of style and content. …

Luzūm Mā Lā Yalzam

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, “observing rules that are not prescribed”, term commonly used for the adoption of a second, or even a third or fourth, invariable consonant preceding the rhyme consonant ( rawī ) which, at least in classical poetry, remains itself invariable [see ḳāfiya , iv, 412a, middle]. The term is also used in dealing with rhymed prose ( sad̲j̲ ) [ q.v.]. In later Arabic and Persian literary theory the term covers not only the classical luzūm , but also a variety of other devices which have nothing to do with the end rhyme. Common synonyms of luzūm are iʿnāt and iltizām , and severa…

Abū Rig̲hāl

(370 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, mythical person, about whom two entirely different traditions can easily be distinguished. According to the first, he was a T̲h̲aḳafite of Ṭāʾif who guided Abraha [ q.v.] on his ¶ way to Mecca. He died in al-Mug̲h̲ammas [ q.v.] and was buried there. It was the custom to stone his tomb. (For a similar custom cf. al-d̲j̲amra .) The story is sometimes told with the object of slandering the T̲h̲aḳafites. The earliest mention would be a verse of Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit (ed. Hirschfeld, lxii, l), if it is not an anti-T̲h̲aḳafite falsificat…


(333 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, literally: “strange”, “uncommon”, a technical term in philology and in the science of tradition. As a term in philology it means: “rare, unfamiliar (and consequently obscure) expressions” (in which sense the terms waḥs̲h̲ī and ḥūs̲h̲ī are also used), and frequently occurs in the titles of books, mostly such as deal with unfamiliar expressions in the Ḳurʾān and in the Tradition (books carrying the titles G̲h̲arīb al-Ḳurʿān and G̲h̲arīb al-Ḥadīt̲h̲ seem to have existed as early as the second century). The term also occurs in works on literar…

Abū Rig̲h̲āl

(356 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, personnage mythique au sujet duquel deux traditions totalement divergentes peuvent facilement être distinguées. Selon la première, c’était un T̲h̲aḳafite de Ṭāʾif qui guida Abraha [ q.v.] dans sa marche sur la Mekke. Il mourut et fut enterré à al-Mug̲h̲ammas [ q.v.]. La coutume était de lapider sa tombe. (Sur une coutume analogue, cf. al-Ḏj̲amra). Cette histoire est rapportée quelquefois dans le but de calomnier les T̲h̲aḳafites. Sa première manifestation serait un vers de Ḥassan b. T̲h̲ābit (éd. Hirschfeld, LXII, 1), s’il ne s’agit pas d’un apoc…


(763 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S. A.
(a.), appelé aussi īhām, à peu près «double sens». «Doppelsinnwitz», figure dont il est souvent question dans la théorie littéraire arabe. Fondée sur l’ is̲h̲tirāk, homonymie, cette figure s’appuie sur le sens «immédiat» ( maʿnā ḳarīb) d’un nom, d’un adjectif ou d’une forme verbale «dissimulant» ( warrā) le sens plus «éloigné» ( maʿnā baʿīd) voulu par le poète. Les noms de personne et de lieu peuvent aussi cacher un sens secondaire. On désigne également le procédé de tawriya par un nombre déroutant d’autres noms: tawhīm, tak̲h̲yīl [ q.v.], tawd̲j̲īh, mug̲h̲ālaṭa maʿnawiyya, etc. Al-Ṣaf…

Ḳudāma b. Ḏj̲aʿfar

(3,977 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
al-KĀtib al-BaG̲H̲dādī, Abū l-Farad̲j̲, philologue, historien et critique qui fut l’un des premiers à introduire l’étude systématique des figures de rhétorique dans la littérature arabe. La date de sa naissance, qui pourrait remonter à 260/873-4 environ, n’est citée nulle part, et celle de sa mort varie entre «le règne d’al-Muḳtadir» (c’est-à-dire avant 320/932), 328/939-40 et 337/948; une date «légèrement postérieure à 300» et celle de 310 ne peuvent être exactes (voir infra). Presque tous les aspects de la biographie de Ḳudāma, de son œuvre et de sa personnalité d…


(285 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
, le plus grand poète préislamique de la tribu de Tamīm, dont al-Aṣmaʿī apprécia et commenta fréquemment les poèmes. Par contre, les premières anthologies, sauf la Ḥamāsa d’al-Buḥturī, le passent rigoureusement sous silence. Il est impossible d’affirmer qu’al-Farazdaḳ, lorsqu’il se vante d’avoir «hérité de la famille d’Aws une langue empoisonnée», vise notre poète. Des fragments de quelque longueur ne se rencontrent pas avant Ibn al-Sikkīt, qui écrivit probablement un commentaire sur son dīwān, et le cite dans son ouvrage lexicographique. Selon les premiers critiques, Aws é…


(493 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
(a.), terme de rhétorique désignant la fin, la conclusion. Dans le Talk̲h̲īṣ al-miftāḥ d’al-Ḳazwīnī (publié sous le titre de Matn al-Talk̲h̲īṣ, Caire s.d., 126-7), sa version amplifiée, l’Ī ḍāḥ (éd. Muḥ. ʿAbd al-Munʿim Ḵh̲afād̲j̲i. Caire 1369/1950, VI, 153-4)- ‘es divers ouvrages fondés sur le Talk̲h̲īṣ, ainsi que quelques textes antérieurs, l’ intihāʾ est mentionné avec l’ ibtidāʾ [ q.v.], «introduction, prologue» et le tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] «transition» comme une des parties de la composition en vers ou en prose (d’autres y ajoutent la k̲h̲uṭba «sermon») qui doivent être l’obj…

al-Ḳazwīnī, Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿUmar, K̲h̲aṭīb Dimas̲h̲ḳ

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A.
(666-739/1268-1338), grand- ḳāḍī de Syrie et d’Égypte et auteur de deux célèbres compendia de rhétorique. On ne sait presque rien de sa vie; la plupart des biographes disent qu’il naquit à al-Mawṣil (la date de 660/1261-2 donnée par Ibn Kat̲h̲īr, Bidāya, Caire 1351/1932, XIV, 185, est probablement fausse; voir Maṭlūb, 106), et que son frère aîné, Imām al-dīn ʿUmar, était né à Tabrīz en 653/1255. S’il est vrai que les deux frères étaient apparentés à ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Rāfiʿī (m. 623/1266; voir Brockelmann, I, 303, S I, 678) comme le rapporte Abū l-Fidāʾ ( al-Muk̲h̲taṣar fī ak̲h̲bār al-bas…
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