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Poverty and the Poor

(986 words)

Author(s): Bonner, Michael
The quality or state of being indigent and, often, in need of material assistance in order to survive; those who are indigent. While modern discussion has concentrated on qurʾānic almsgiving (q.v.) and its voluntary or involuntary character (see bibliography below), the broader themes of poverty and the poor reveal the image of a community of believers bound together in a network of generosity and benefaction (see community and society in the qurʾān ). Feeding the poor (lit. “hungry”; see famine ) is a trait of the “companions of the right hand” ( q 90:13-18; see left hand and right hand ) and…


(1,695 words)

Author(s): Bonner, Michael
Worldly possessions and property. In this sense, “wealth” occurs often in the Qūrʾan. The most common term for it, māl and its plural amwāl, prevails in the later (Medinan) sūras (q.v.; see also chronology and the qurʾān ). Additional terms include ghināʾ and other words derived from its root, especially in the early (Meccan) sūras. Sometimes property (q.v.) seems taken for granted as a simple fact of life: God “has made it a support for you” ( allatī jaʿala llāhu lakum qiyāman, q 4:5); one reason for men's control over women is “the expenditure they make [for them] out of their property” ( q 4:3…


(3,116 words)

Author(s): Bonner, Michael | El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria
The inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople. The Byzantines ( al-Rūm, lit. “the Romans”) are named in the Qurʾān only in ¶ Sūrat al-Rūm, q 30:1-5: “The Byzantines have been defeated (ghulibati l-Rūm) in a nearby land, but after their defeat they will prevail (sa-yaghlibūna) within a few years…. On that day the believers will rejoice.” An alternate reading going back to several early authorities, including Ibn ʿUmar (d. 73/693), reverses the voice of the verbs: “The Byzantines have prevailed (ghalabati l-Rūm)… [but afterwards] will be defeated (sa…


(6,592 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Wischmeyer, Wolfgang | Köpf, Ulrich | Strohm, Christoph | Hauptmann, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. The Early Church – III. Middle Ages, Reformation, Counter-reformation – IV. The Modern Period – V. Martyrs of the Orthodox Church – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam – VIII. Missiology I. History of Religion The term martyrium (Greek μαρτύριον/ martúrion) was coined in early Christianity, where it denotes a self-sacrificial death in religious conflict as a witness to faith Historical and systematic references are found in many contexts, in which comparable terms imply something slightly different. For example, the Islamic šahīd, “witness…