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(339 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, al-ḥasan b. muḥammad al-dimas̲h̲ḳī al-ṣaffūrī badr al-dīn , an Arab historian and poet, born in the middle of Ramaḍān 963/July 1556, at Ṣaffūrīya in Galilea, came when 10 years old with his father to Damascus, where he received his education at the Madrasa al-Ṣāliḥiyya. After the completion of his studies, which he had to interrupt in 974/1567 by a four years’ stay in Jerusalem on account of famine, he lectured in various madrasas . In the year 1020/1611 he acted as Ḳāḍī to the Syrian pilgrim caravan. He died on the 13th D̲j̲umādā I 1024/11th J…

al-Anbāri, Abū Bakr

(217 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
muḥammad b. al-ḳāsim (properly ibn al-anbārī ), traditionist and philologian, son of Abū Muḥammad [cf. al-anbārī, abū muḥamad ]; b. 11 Rad̲j̲ab 231/3 Jan. 885, d. Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 328/Oct. 940. He was a disciple of his father and of T̲h̲aʿlab, lectured in his father’s lifetime in the same mosque, and was famous for his phenomenal memory and his abstemiousness. The following of his works are extant: al-Aḍdād , ed. M. Th. Houtsma, Leiden 1881; al-Zāhir ; al-Īḍāḥ fil-Waḳf wa ’l-Ibtidaʾ ; on the passages in the Ḳurʾān where tāʾ is written instead of hāʾ , probably an extract from al-Hāʾāt fī …

Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih

(761 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿUmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad , Andalusian writer and poet, born at Cordova on 10 Ramaḍān 246/29 November 860, died in the same city on 18 D̲j̲umādā I 328/3 March 940. A mawlā of His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, he was one of the official panegyrists of the Marwānid dynasty from the reign of Muḥammad I (d. 273/886) to the middle of that of al-Nāṣir (300/912-350/961). He was mediocre in his laudatory poetry, but showed more originality in the erotic verses which he wrote in his youth and to which in his old age he added ascetic poems in the same rhyme and metre called mumaḥḥiṣāt (“w…


(300 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, “clothes-seller”, a name given to a number of people, of whom the following are of note: 1.) Aḥmad b. ʿUmar , a mathematician. The date of his death is unknown. Among those of his works which have been lost, a commentary on the translation of Euclid was especially celebrated. The one work of his which is still extant is K. Misāḥat al-ḥalaḳ . which is preserved in Oxford (Bodleian Lib., Mss. Or. i, no. 913) and in Cairo ( Fihrist al-kutub al-ʿarabiyya fīl-kutubk̲h̲āna al-k̲h̲adīwiyya , v, 204); see Fihrist, 265, 1. 25, 282, 1. 3; Ibn al-Ḳiftī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ , Cairo 1326, 57, 1. 5. 2.) Abū ʿA…

Kalīla Wa-Dimna

(4,462 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, title of an Indian mirror for princes, formed by the corruption of the Sanskrit names of the two principal characters, two jackals, Karaṭaka and Damanaka (in the old Syriac translation the forms are still Kalīlag and Damnag). It was translated from Sanskrit into Pahlavi and thence into Arabic, and became widely known in Muslim as well as Christian literatures. 1. The original work. The Indian original was composed by an unknown Vis̲h̲nuite Brahman, according to Hertel probably about the year 300 A.D. in Kas̲h̲mīr; the main argument for this, the transcription of denarius by dīnāra


(842 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb , S̲h̲āfiʿi faḳīh , was born in Baṣra in 364/974 and died in Bag̲h̲dād on 30 Rabīʿ I 450/27 May 1058, aged 86 years. After completing his studies in Baṣra and in Bag̲h̲dād, he became a teacher. The renown which he acquired, owing to the extent and the variety of his knowledge, drew to him the attention of the authorities; he was appointed ḳāḍī and fulfilled the responsibilities of this post in various towns, in particular at Ustuwā, near Nis̲h̲āpūr, before being entrusted with the role in Bag̲h̲dād itself. In 429/1038, he was awarded the honorific surname ( l…

ʿAlī b. Maymūn

(186 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. abī bakr al-idrīsī al-mag̲h̲ribī Moroccan mystic of Berber (though pretended ʿAlid) origin, born about 854/1450. In his youth he is said to have been the amīr of a ḳabīla of the Banū Rās̲h̲id in the Ḏj̲abal G̲h̲umāra, but to have relinquished that position because he was unable to enforce among his people the prohibition on wine-drinking. In 901/1495-6 he left Fez, visited Damascus, Mecca, Aleppo, and Brusa, and finally settled at Damascus where he died in 917/1511. His mysticism was of a moderate character: in his Bayān G̲h̲urbat al-Islām bi-Wāsiṭat Ṣinfay al-Mutafaḳḳiha wa ’l-Mutafa…


(198 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, muḥammad b. ʿabd al-raḥmān al-ṣiddīḳī al-s̲h̲āfiʿī al-as̲h̲ʿarī abū ’l-makārim s̲h̲ams al-dīn , Arab poet and mystic, born 898/1492, lived a year alternately in Cairo and a year in Mecca, and died in 952/1545. Besides his Dīwān (Bibl. Nat, Paris, Catalogue des mss. ar. by de Slane, no. 3229-3233; Descriptive Catalogue of the Arabic, Pers . and Turk . Mss. in the Library of Trinity College , Cambridge, 1870, no. 55-7), a collection of mystical poems entitled Tard̲j̲umān al-Asrār (Vollers, Katalog der islam . usw. Hass. der Universitätsbiblioth. zu Leipzig , no. 573; Derenbourg, Les mss.…

Ibn Hid̲j̲d̲j̲a

(495 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū Bakr (or Abu ’l-Maḥāsin ) Taḳī ’l-Dīn b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī al-Ḳādirī al-Ḥanafī al-Azrārī , one of the most famous poets and prose-writers of the Mamlūk period. Born in 767/1366 at Ḥamāt, he first practised the trade of a button-maker ( azrārī ), then applied himself to study, travelling for this purpose to Damascus, Mosul and Cairo. On his return from Egypt in 791/1389, he witnessed the great burning of Damascus during the siege by Barḳūḳ [ q.v.], which gave him the theme for his first literary work, an epistle to Ibn Makānis (MS Berlin no. 9784). Thanks to …

Muḥammad Murtaḍā

(526 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḥusayni al-Zabīdī al-Ḥanafī , Abu ’l-Fayḍ, Arabic scholar and specialist in lexicography. He was born in 1145/1732 in Bilgrām in Kanawd̲j̲ [ q.v.] in northwestern India, and settled, after travelling for many years in pursuit of knowledge, in Cairo on 9 Ṣafar 1167/7 December 1753. There he succeeded in reviving an interest in the study of Tradition by giving lectures to specially invited companies. In Upper Egypt, also, he was always a welcome guest with the Arab S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Humām…


(791 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. ʿArabī al-D̲j̲āwī , an Arabic writer of Malay origin, born in Tanāra (Banten), the son of a village judge ( pangalu ), after concluding his studies made the pilgrimage to Mecca and settled there permanently in about 1855, after making a short visit to his native land. After he had studied further and completed his education with the teachers of the holy city, he set up as a teacher himself and gained great influence over his fellow countrymen and their kinsmen. From 1870 he devoted half his time to authorship. He was still alive in 1888. He wrote a large number of comment…

Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī

(233 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Saʿīd b. Aws , Arab grammarian and lexicographer of the school of Baṣra. He belonged to the Medina tribe of Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲. A pupil of Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ [ q.v.], he was one of the few Baṣrians who went to Kūfa, where he collected, from al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī [ q.v.] the greater part of the poetic material which he used in his K. al-Nawādir . He was invited by al-Mahdī to come to Bag̲h̲dād and died in 214 or 215/830-1. A contemporary of Abū ʿUbayda and al-Aṣmaʿī, he was considered superior to them in grammar, but of his numerous treatises only two have survived: K. al-Maṭar , a …


(127 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, At̲h̲īr al-Dīn Mufaḍḍal b. ʿUmar , philosophical writer, about whose life nothing is known; d. in 663/1264 (according to Barhebraeus in 1262). He was the author of two works on scholastic philosophy, which were much in use and often commented: (i) Hidāyat al-Ḥikma in three parts, a. Logic ( al-manṭiḳ ), b. Physics ( al-ṭabīʿyyāt ), c. theology ( al-ilāhiyyāt ). The best known commentary is that by Mīr Ḥusayn al-Maybudī, written in 880/1475). (ii) al-Isāg̲h̲ūd̲j̲ī , an adaptation of the Isagoge of ¶ Porphyry (cf. fūrfīriyūs ). Of the commentaries, that by S̲h…

al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Bāḳī

(104 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
abū ’l-maʿālī ʿalāʾ al-dīn al-makkī , Arabic writer who in 991/1583 composed a treatise on the eminence of the Abyssinians (after al-Suyūṭī and others), entitled al-Ṭirāz al-Manḳūs̲h̲ fī Maḥāsin al-Ḥubūs̲h̲ and existing in numerous manuscripts. The work has been translated by M. Weisweiler, Buntes Prachtgewand . . ., Hanover 1924; extracts from the text in Bibliothecae Bodleianae cod. mss. or. cat. , ii, 1363. An extract, by Nūr al-Dīn al-Ḥalabī (d. 1044/1635; see al-ḥalabī , nūr al-dīn ) was printed in Cairo, 1307. (C. Brockelmann) Bibliography Flügel, in ZDMG, v, 81, xvi, 606-709 Broc…


(1,286 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, a family of scholars and jurists in Damascus of the 10th-11th/16th-17th centuries, of which three members distinguished themselves in literature: 1. Muḥibb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr b. Dāwūd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliḳ b. Muḥibb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Taḳī al-Dīn al-ʿUlwānī al-Ḥamawī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī, born in the middle of Ramaḍān 949/Dec. 23, 1542 in Ḥamāt, studied there, in Ḥalab and Ḥimṣ, and after a journey to Istanbul obtained a post as teacher in the Madrasa al-Ḳuḍāʿiyya in Damascus. In 978/1571 he accompanied the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-islām and chief ḳā…


(845 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
(bar ʿebhrāyā, Ibn al-ʿIbrī) Gregorius Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲, Arab historian and the last classic in Syriac literature, was born in 1226 at Melitene-Malaṭīya, the son of a baptised Jewish physician; he thus received the surname, not very agreeable to him, under which he has become famous; to this also was due his knowledge of Hebrew, an accomplishment so rare among his contemporaries, which enabled him for example to study a Midrash on Joseph in the original, (cf. Ethicon, ed’. Bedjan, 489). Although from the beginning destined for a priestly calling, which then was the only …


(120 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Bū-d̲j̲aʿfarak, Arab philologist, born in 740 (1077), a pupil of al-Maidānī, lived in strict seclusion in his house and in the old mosque at Nīsābūr, of which he was Imām and died on the 30 Ramaḍān 544 = 31 Jan. 1150. Of his works there has been preserved his dictionary of Arabic infinitives with Persian explanations, the Tād̲j̲ al-Maṣādir, cf. Loth, A Catalogue of the Arab. Mss. in the Library of the India Office, N°. 994—996; Bibliothecae Bodleiajiae cod. mss. or. cat., i. N°. 1089. (C. Brockelmann) Bibliography Yāḳūt, The Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb ilā Maʿrifat al-Adīb (ed. D. S. Ma…


(336 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ṣaffūrī Badr al-Dīn, an Arab historian and poet, born in the middle of Ramaḍān 963 = July 1556, at Ṣaffūrīya in Galilea, came when 10 years old with his father to Damascus, where he received his education at the Madrasa al-Ṣāliḥīya. After the completion of his studies, which he had to interrupt in 974 = 1567 by a four years’ stay in Jerusalem on account of famine, he lectured in various madrasas. In the year 1020= 1611 he acted as Ḳāḍī to the Syrian pilgrim caravan. He died on the 13th Ḏj̲umādā I 1024 = 11th June 1615. His chief work is the collection of…


(880 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, nisba of a family of officials of pure Arab origin, several members of which filled high offices under the Aiyūbids. The honorary title al-Ḳāḍī al-Awḥad was borne by Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid, whose son Yūsuf, afterwards al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was born at Ḳifṭ on Muḥarram I, 548 (March 29, 1153). He succeeded his father in the administration of his native town, but had to leave it in 572 (1176/1177) on account of the rising of a Fāṭimid pretender. After filling several offices in Upper Egypt, he was summoned in 583 (1187), after the …

al-Murtaḍā al-S̲h̲arīf

(784 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ṭāhir Ḏh̲i ’l-Manāḳib Abī Aḥmad al-Ḥusain b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Mūsā al-Kāhẓim b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ b. Muḥammad al-Bāḳir b. ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, ʿAlam al-Hudā, Arab author born in 355 (966), died in 436 (1044) as Naḳīb of the ʿAlids in Bag̲h̲dād. Of his works, which are detailed in Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der Hdss. in Berlin, N°. 16, we still have the following: 1. His principal work G̲h̲urar al-Fawāʾid wa-Durar al-Ḳalāʾid bi ’l-Muḥāḍarāt, usually called briefly al-Durar wa ’l-G̲h̲urar, which he finished on the 22nd Ḏj̲um…
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