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(339 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, al-ḥasan b. muḥammad al-dimas̲h̲ḳī al-ṣaffūrī badr al-dīn , an Arab historian and poet, born in the middle of Ramaḍān 963/July 1556, at Ṣaffūrīya in Galilea, came when 10 years old with his father to Damascus, where he received his education at the Madrasa al-Ṣāliḥiyya. After the completion of his studies, which he had to interrupt in 974/1567 by a four years’ stay in Jerusalem on account of famine, he lectured in various madrasas . In the year 1020/1611 he acted as Ḳāḍī to the Syrian pilgrim caravan. He died on the 13th D̲j̲umādā I 1024/11th J…

al-Anbāri, Abū Bakr

(217 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
muḥammad b. al-ḳāsim (properly ibn al-anbārī ), traditionist and philologian, son of Abū Muḥammad [cf. al-anbārī, abū muḥamad ]; b. 11 Rad̲j̲ab 231/3 Jan. 885, d. Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 328/Oct. 940. He was a disciple of his father and of T̲h̲aʿlab, lectured in his father’s lifetime in the same mosque, and was famous for his phenomenal memory and his abstemiousness. The following of his works are extant: al-Aḍdād , ed. M. Th. Houtsma, Leiden 1881; al-Zāhir ; al-Īḍāḥ fil-Waḳf wa ’l-Ibtidaʾ ; on the passages in the Ḳurʾān where tāʾ is written instead of hāʾ , probably an extract from al-Hāʾāt fī …

Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih

(761 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿUmar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad , Andalusian writer and poet, born at Cordova on 10 Ramaḍān 246/29 November 860, died in the same city on 18 D̲j̲umādā I 328/3 March 940. A mawlā of His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, he was one of the official panegyrists of the Marwānid dynasty from the reign of Muḥammad I (d. 273/886) to the middle of that of al-Nāṣir (300/912-350/961). He was mediocre in his laudatory poetry, but showed more originality in the erotic verses which he wrote in his youth and to which in his old age he added ascetic poems in the same rhyme and metre called mumaḥḥiṣāt (“w…


(300 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, “clothes-seller”, a name given to a number of people, of whom the following are of note: 1.) Aḥmad b. ʿUmar , a mathematician. The date of his death is unknown. Among those of his works which have been lost, a commentary on the translation of Euclid was especially celebrated. The one work of his which is still extant is K. Misāḥat al-ḥalaḳ . which is preserved in Oxford (Bodleian Lib., Mss. Or. i, no. 913) and in Cairo ( Fihrist al-kutub al-ʿarabiyya fīl-kutubk̲h̲āna al-k̲h̲adīwiyya , v, 204); see Fihrist, 265, 1. 25, 282, 1. 3; Ibn al-Ḳiftī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-ḥukamāʾ , Cairo 1326, 57, 1. 5. 2.) Abū ʿA…

Kalīla Wa-Dimna

(4,462 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, title of an Indian mirror for princes, formed by the corruption of the Sanskrit names of the two principal characters, two jackals, Karaṭaka and Damanaka (in the old Syriac translation the forms are still Kalīlag and Damnag). It was translated from Sanskrit into Pahlavi and thence into Arabic, and became widely known in Muslim as well as Christian literatures. 1. The original work. The Indian original was composed by an unknown Vis̲h̲nuite Brahman, according to Hertel probably about the year 300 A.D. in Kas̲h̲mīr; the main argument for this, the transcription of denarius by dīnāra


(842 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb , S̲h̲āfiʿi faḳīh , was born in Baṣra in 364/974 and died in Bag̲h̲dād on 30 Rabīʿ I 450/27 May 1058, aged 86 years. After completing his studies in Baṣra and in Bag̲h̲dād, he became a teacher. The renown which he acquired, owing to the extent and the variety of his knowledge, drew to him the attention of the authorities; he was appointed ḳāḍī and fulfilled the responsibilities of this post in various towns, in particular at Ustuwā, near Nis̲h̲āpūr, before being entrusted with the role in Bag̲h̲dād itself. In 429/1038, he was awarded the honorific surname ( l…

al-Murtaḍā al-S̲h̲arīf

(784 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ṭāhir Ḏh̲i ’l-Manāḳib Abī Aḥmad al-Ḥusain b. Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Mūsā al-Kāhẓim b. Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ b. Muḥammad al-Bāḳir b. ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn b. al-Ḥusain b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, ʿAlam al-Hudā, Arab author born in 355 (966), died in 436 (1044) as Naḳīb of the ʿAlids in Bag̲h̲dād. Of his works, which are detailed in Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der Hdss. in Berlin, N°. 16, we still have the following: 1. His principal work G̲h̲urar al-Fawāʾid wa-Durar al-Ḳalāʾid bi ’l-Muḥāḍarāt, usually called briefly al-Durar wa ’l-G̲h̲urar, which he finished on the 22nd Ḏj̲um…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(546 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baisānī al-ʿAsḳalānī, Muḥyī (Mud̲j̲īr) al-Dīn, Saladin’s celebrated vizier, was born on 15 Ḏj̲umādā ii. 529 (3 April 1135) at Asḳalān [q. v.] where his father, a native of Baisān, called al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, filled the office of judge. In 543/4 (1148—9) his father placed him in the Dīwān al-Ins̲h̲āʾ in Cairo as a learner. By 548 (1153) he had entered the service of Ibn Ḥadīd, ḳāḍī of Alexandria, as secretary. As his elegant reports from there attracted attention to him in Cairo, he …


(146 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Zain al-Dīn wrote about the year 985 (1577) for Sulṭān ʿAlī ʿĀdū S̲h̲āh of Bīd̲j̲apūr (d. 987=1579) a brief history of the spread of Islām in Malabar, the coming of the Portuguese and their campaigns against the Muslims from 908 to 985 (1498—1578). The work is preserved in Brit. Mus. MS., N°. 94, India Office N°. 714 and 1044, 5 and in Morley, Catalogue of Historical MSS., N°. 13 and is entitled Tuḥfat al-Mud̲j̲āhiaīn; extracts were given by John Briggs in Ferishta, History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India, London 1829, iv. 531 sqq. and it was translated by M. I. Rowlandson, Tohfut ul-M…


(672 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Ḏj̲uʿfī, Arab author, born 13th S̲h̲awwāl 194 = 21st July 810 at Buk̲h̲ārā, the grandson of a Persian, named Bardīzbah. He began the study of the Traditions at the early age of eleven and in his sixteenth year made the pilgrimage and attended the lectures of the most famous teachers of Tradition in Mecca and Medīna. He then went to Egypt as a Ṭālib al-ʿIlm and spent the next sixteen years, of which five were spent in Baṣra, in wandering through all Asia. He then returned to his native town where he died on the 30th Ramaḍān 256 (31st August 870); he is buri…


(384 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Aḥmad b. Aḥmad b. Salāma , S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn , an Arab author, pupil of the celebrated S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh S̲h̲ams al-Dīn (al-S̲h̲ams) al-Ramlī (d. 1004/1596), was regarded in his day as an unchallenged authority and died towards the end of S̲h̲awwāl 1069/July 1659. He composed numerous works, of which 21 have survived, in the fields of fiḳh , geography, medicine, secret sciences and adab . To the 17 works mentioned by Brockelmann, II, 364, we have to add: 1. a Kitāb al-Mud̲j̲arrabāt in Göttingen (see Verzeichn. der Hss. im Preuss. Staate , I. Hannover, 3. Göttingen, iii, Berlin 1894, no. 100); 2. M…


(127 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, At̲h̲īr al-Dīn Mufaḍḍal b. ʿUmar , philosophical writer, about whose life nothing is known; d. in 663/1264 (according to Barhebraeus in 1262). He was the author of two works on scholastic philosophy, which were much in use and often commented: (i) Hidāyat al-Ḥikma in three parts, a. Logic ( al-manṭiḳ ), b. Physics ( al-ṭabīʿyyāt ), c. theology ( al-ilāhiyyāt ). The best known commentary is that by Mīr Ḥusayn al-Maybudī, written in 880/1475). (ii) al-Isāg̲h̲ūd̲j̲ī , an adaptation of the Isagoge of ¶ Porphyry (cf. fūrfīriyūs ). Of the commentaries, that by S̲h…

al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Bāḳī

(104 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
abū ’l-maʿālī ʿalāʾ al-dīn al-makkī , Arabic writer who in 991/1583 composed a treatise on the eminence of the Abyssinians (after al-Suyūṭī and others), entitled al-Ṭirāz al-Manḳūs̲h̲ fī Maḥāsin al-Ḥubūs̲h̲ and existing in numerous manuscripts. The work has been translated by M. Weisweiler, Buntes Prachtgewand . . ., Hanover 1924; extracts from the text in Bibliothecae Bodleianae cod. mss. or. cat. , ii, 1363. An extract, by Nūr al-Dīn al-Ḥalabī (d. 1044/1635; see al-ḥalabī , nūr al-dīn ) was printed in Cairo, 1307. (C. Brockelmann) Bibliography Flügel, in ZDMG, v, 81, xvi, 606-709 Broc…


(1,286 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, a family of scholars and jurists in Damascus of the 10th-11th/16th-17th centuries, of which three members distinguished themselves in literature: 1. Muḥibb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr b. Dāwūd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-K̲h̲āliḳ b. Muḥibb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Taḳī al-Dīn al-ʿUlwānī al-Ḥamawī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḥanafī, born in the middle of Ramaḍān 949/Dec. 23, 1542 in Ḥamāt, studied there, in Ḥalab and Ḥimṣ, and after a journey to Istanbul obtained a post as teacher in the Madrasa al-Ḳuḍāʿiyya in Damascus. In 978/1571 he accompanied the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-islām and chief ḳā…

al-Dasūḳī, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad

(43 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , a Sūfī of repute, b. 833/1429, d. in Damascus S̲h̲aʿbān 919/October 1513, author of collections of prayers ( wird , ḥizb). (C. Brockelmann*) Bibliography Ibn al-ʿImād, S̲h̲ad̲h̲arāt, year 919 Brockelmann, II, 153 S II, 153.

Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲

(57 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī , Arab mystic, compiled in about 714/1314 a collection of edifying anecdotes entitled Tuffāḥ al-arwāḥ , wa-miftāḥ al-arbāḥ which formed part of his lost work Tas̲h̲wīḥ al-arwāḥ wa ’l-ḳulūb ilā d̲h̲ikr ʿallām al-g̲h̲uyūb (see Ahlwardt, Verzeichnis der ar. Hdss. von Berlin , no. 8794). (C. Brockelmann)

ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(254 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
b. aḥmad b. muḥammad maʿṣüm b. ibrāhīm ṣadr al-dīn al-ḥusaynī al-madanī , author of biographical works and a book of travels, b. 15 Ḏj̲umādā I 1052/12 August 1642 in Medina; he was a descendant of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn al-S̲h̲īrāzī. His father was since 1055/1644 in the service of the prince S̲h̲āhins̲h̲āh ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad Ḳuṭb S̲h̲āh. ʿAli joined him in Ḥaydarābād in 1068/1657. His father died in 1083/1672, a year after the death ¶ of his patron, S̲h̲āhins̲h̲āh ʿAbd Allāh, and ʿAli himself incurred the displeasure of the ruler, Abu’l-Ḥasan. He succeeded, however,…


(403 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, abū ’l-ʿabbās aḥmad b. muḥammad b. abī bakr al-k̲h̲aṭīb s̲h̲ihāb al-dīn al-s̲h̲āfiʿī , an authority on tradition and theologian, born on 12 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 851/20 January 1448 in Cairo, where he spent his life as a preacher—apart from two stays of some duration in Mecca—and died on Friday, 7 Muḥarram 923/31 January 1517. He owed his literary fame mainly to his exhaustive commentary on the Ṣaḥīḥ of al-Buk̲h̲ārī entitled Irs̲h̲ād al-Sārī fī S̲h̲arḥ al-Buk̲h̲ārī , which exists in numerous manuscripts and printed copies; of these latter, the earliest…

al-S̲h̲arīf al-Murtaḍā

(907 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. Mūsā... b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Imāmī theologian, grammarian, writer and poet, in short, an Arab adīb , born and died in Bag̲h̲dād (355-436/967-1044). A direct descendant of ʿAlī, he was, in the city of his birth, naḳīb [ q.v.] of the Ṭālibīs, and his predominance in Imāmī circles furthermore earned him the titles of D̲h̲u ’l-Mad̲j̲dayn and ʿAlam al-Hudā. Little is known of his life, other than the following facts: he had a friend and pupil in Abū D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṭūsī (385-460/995-1067 [ q.v.]), he was an associate of Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ [ q.v.], and he de…


(239 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf ʿAlam al-Dīn al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Arab historian, was born at Seville in Ḏj̲umādā I 665 = February 1267, of Berber parents, and travelled to the east on the conclusion of his studies, where he first took up his abode in Ḥalab in 685 (1286). After making the pilgrimage to Mecca in 688 (1289), he settled in Damascus. Here he received a professorship in the al-As̲h̲rafīya-school of Tradition, and in 713 (1313), a teaching post in the Ẓāhirīya also. He ultimately became the first…
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