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(168 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs , a kind of rattle once used and in some places still used by Eastern Christians to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳōs̲h̲ā , is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e.g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, 19, 6; ZDMG, xxxiii, 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā, in Nöldeke’s Delectus , 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī , xix, 92. According to tradition, Muḥam…


(1,371 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, later often pronounced Munā , a place in the hills east of Mecca on the road from it to ʿArafa [ q.v.]. The distance between the two is given by al-Muḳaddasī as one farsak̲h̲ , while Wavell calls it five miles and says the continuation to ʿArafa is nine miles. Minā lies in a narrow valley running from west to east, 1,500 paces long according to Burckhardt, surrounded by steep barren granite cliffs. On the north side rises a hill called T̲h̲abīr. Travellers from Mecca come down into the valley by a hill path with steps in it; this is the ʿAḳaba [ q.v.] which became famous in connection with Muḥam…


(232 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: "Allāh!", for which also Lahumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab., 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums 2, 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as "the God" (just as "the Lord". It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, Abhandlungen z. arab . Philol ., i, 35 ff.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥayyi =much …

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Muḥammad

(448 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥasan b. Zayd , a descendant of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭabaristān [ q.v.]. The high-handed rule of the Ṭāhirids on the one hand and, on the other, the settlement of ʿAlid elements in the region led to a rising in favour of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd, al-dāʿī al-kabīr , in 250/864. Al-Ḥasan, who was living at Rayy, was proclaimed sovereign by a section of the population of Ṭabaristān and received the allegiance of Wahsūdān b. Ḏj̲ustān of Daylam [ q.v.]. He succeeded in defeating the Ṭāhirid troops and seizing the towns of Āmul and Sāriya, while D̲j̲us…

Maymūna Bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(228 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the last wife that Muḥammad married. She stemmed from the Hawāzin tribe of ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa and was a sister-in-law of al-ʿAbbās. After she had divorced her first husband, a T̲h̲aḳafi, and her second, the Kuras̲h̲ī Abū Rukm, had died, she lived as a widow in Mecca where the Prophet wooed her, primarily no doubt for political reasons, on the ʿumra allowed to him in the year 7/629. His wish to marry her in Mecca was refused by the Meccans, in order not to prolong his stay there; the marriage therefore took place in Sarif, a village north of Mecca. Her brother-in-law al-ʿAbbās acted as her walī

Hind Bint ʿUtba

(365 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabīʿa , mother of Muʿāwiya; this Meccan woman, who belonged to the clan of the ʿAbd S̲h̲ams (see the list of her maternal ancestors in Muḥ. b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar , 19), had mairied as her third husband Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb, to whom she bore other children besides the future caliph. Traditions hostile to the Umayyads draw an extremely repellant portrait, apparently something of a caricature, of this short, stout woman who quite certainly had a highly passionate temperament and who on different occasions m…

al-Ḥasan b. Zayd b. al-Ḥasan

(165 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib was a pious man, who, following the example of his father and grandfather, abandoned all political aspirations and reconciled himself to ʿAbbāsid rule. His daughter became the wife of al-Saffāḥ while he himself lived at the Caliph’s court, and is even said to have occasionally communicated the views of his ʿAlid relatives and their dependants to al-Manṣūr. In 150/767 al-Manṣūr made him governor ¶ of Medina, but in 155/772 he aroused the Caliph’s wrath and was dismissed, imprisoned and had his property confiscated. But restitution was made to…


(389 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the Arabic name of the southern half of the eastern Jordan district. In the narrative of the unfortunate Muʾta expedition, it also comprises the land south of Arnon, for both Maʾāb (Rabbat Moab) and Muʾta and the village of Mas̲h̲ārif (this however is identified with Muʾta by al-Mubarrad Kāmil 639 et seq.) were included in it. According to Wāḳidī its southern boundary was a day’s journey distant from Ḏh̲āt Aṭlāḥ. The whole eastern Jordan district is often (e. g. Ṭabarī, Annales, 1, 2646; 3, 52) designated by al-Balḳāʾ, Bat̲h̲anīya [q. v.] and Ḥawrān. The town of Arbad (Irb…


(443 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Ḏj̲urham, Γοραμα in Steph. Byz., an ancient Arabian tribe, who according to tradition once lived in Mecca, whither they had migrated from the Yaman. They must have been exterminated by some catastrophe at quite an early date, for a poet, a contemporary of the Prophet, (Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 468, 3, cf. also Kāmil, ed. Wright, 445, 2) held them up as a warning to the Ḳurais̲h̲ites along with ʿĀd. Later genealogists therefore reckon them with the ʿAmaliḳ, ʿĀd, T̲h̲amūd etc., among the prehistoric, original Arabs (the ʿArab al-ʿĀriba), whose descent they trace from ʿĀbar (ʿEber) and who…


(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
is an old Arabic formula of invocation: “Allāh!”, for which also Lāhumma is found (cf. Nöldeke, Zur Grammatik d. class. Arab. p. 6). Whether, as Wellhausen supposes in his Reste arabischen Heidentums (2nd ed.) p. 224, it was originally meant for the god Allāh, higher than and different from the old Arabian gods, is rather doubtful, because every god might be invoked as “the God” (just as “the Lord”). It was used in praying, offering, concluding a treaty and blessing or cursing (see Goldziher, ¶ Abhandlungen z. arab. Philol. i. 35 et seq.; cf. also the expression Allāhuma ḥaiyi = much good ma…


(520 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old settlement in a wellwatered oasis in northern Arabia, four days’ journey south of Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; according to Muḳaddasī, three from Ḥid̲j̲r and four from Wādi ’l-Ḳurā. It lies in a depression the length of which Jaussen and Savignac put at 2 miles with a breadth of 500 yards. The subterranean waters collect and burst forth into a well 40—45 feet deep and about 60 feet in diameter, according to the two travellers just named. Taimāʾ is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions and in th…


(619 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(Bostka), at the present day also called Eski-S̲h̲ām (Old Damascus), the centre of a Nāḥiya, is a wretched village in Ḥawrān, with imposing ruins recalling its past splendour. The existence of the town can first be definitely proved in the Maccabee period (1 Mace. v. 26) but in the period following, it is much more frequently mentioned and in Roman times under the name of Nova Trajana Bostra it was expanded and fortified; after Diocletian it was the capital of the province of Arabia. It does not seem t…


(241 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a port at the foot of Mount Carmel. The name is not found in the Old Testament and is first found as ʿΗΦα in Eusebius and as Ḥaifa in the Talmud. After the Arab conquest of Palestine Ḥaifa, which was overshadowed by ʿAkka, did not play an important part and it is not till the middle of the xith century that we have a brief description of it by Nāṣir Ḵh̲usraw, who mentions the many palm-groves and the large barques built by its inhabitants. In 1100 the town was taken by the Crusaders and attained some importance, as is clear from Idrīsī’s account of it…


(266 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAbd al-Manāf, ancestor of the Hās̲h̲imids. The tradition that Muḥammad belonged to this family is confirmed by several ancient poems e. g. Aʿs̲h̲ā in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 256, 1 who calls Muḥammad Hās̲h̲im’s son, cf. also p. 633, 18; 799, 13. But whether Hās̲h̲im really was ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib’s father and Muḥammad’s grandfather, as tradition avers, is by no means so certain, as the association of the Banū Hās̲h̲im with the Banū Muṭṭalib, ibid. p. 536, 14, or the enumeration of the Meccan families in Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit ( Kāmil, p. 141, sq.) do not exactly corroborate it. In any case, all …

Kaʿb b. al-As̲h̲raf

(440 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a Medīna opponent of Muḥammad, according to one statement a Naḍīrī, according to another, a member of the Ṭaiyiʾī family of Nabhān but the son of a Naḍīrī woman. In any case, he was an ardent champion of Judaism (cf. the expression saiyid al-aḥbār, Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659, 12). Aroused by the result of the battle of Badr, he went to Mecca where he used his considerable poetic gifts (in the Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī he is called faḥl faṣīḥ) to incite the Ḳurais̲h̲ to fight against the victor. He then returned to Medīna, where he is said to have compromised the wives of the Muslims …

Muṣʿab b. ʿUmair

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a follower of Muḥammad of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of ʿAbd al-Dār. The son of rich parents, this handsome young man had attacted attention by his elegant appearance when Muḥammad’s preaching made so deep an impression upon him that he abandoned the advantages of his social position to join the despised adherents of the Prophet. Tradition dilates on the contrast between his former luxurious life and later poverty but these, like such stories in general, are somewhat suspicious, although not impossi…


(1,118 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in central Palestine, the name of which is derived from that of Flavia Neapolis built in honour of Vespanian. Its Old Testament predecessor was S h e c h e m, which however lay more to the east, on the site of the present village of Balāṭa (the name is explained by S. Klein, in Z. D. P. V., xxxv. 38 sq.; cf. R. Hartmann, ibid., xxxiii. 175 sq., as “platanus”, from the evidence of the pilgrim of Bordeaux and the Midras̲h̲ Gen. rb., c. 81, § 3). According to Eusebius, the place where the old town stood was pointed out in a suburb of Neapolis. The correctness of this identi…


(1,105 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, i. e. Palestine, is the name given ¶ by the Arabs to the Roman Province of Palestina Prima, practically Judaea and Samaria with Caesarea ad Mare as capital. De Goeje, Wellhausen and Caetani have brought order into the confused accounts of the conquest of this district by the Muslims, notably by disputing and correcting Saif’s account, although various details still remain uncertain; for example, the date of the outbreak of hostilities. While the Arab historians do not make Abū Bakr send an army to Western Palestine via Aila under ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣī till the year 13 (began 7th March 634), acco…


(542 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a fortress east of the Dead Sea in the ancient Moab. The name goes back to the Aramaic kark̲h̲ā, “town”, which the Targum gives for ḳīr in the Moabite place-names Ḳīr Mōʾāb (Is., xv. 1) and Ḳīr Ḥäräs (Ḥaräsät; Is., xvi. 7, 11; Jer., xlviii. 31, 36). It is found as Χαραχμωβα in Ptolemy (v. 16, 4) on the mosaic map of Mādaba, in Stephanus Byzantinus, etc. Its situation on a steeply sloping spur only connected by an (artificially deepened) saddleback with the main ridge makes al-Kerak an unusually strong fortress. It is remarkable tha…


(492 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess. Her character can only be deduced from her name, which may safely be connected as a plural (for manawāt) with the Aramaic m e nātā, plur. m e nāwātā, portion, lot, Hebrew mānā, plur. mānōt and also with the god of fate m e ni, Is. lxv. 11 (cf. lxx.). In Arabic we have corresponding to it, manīya, plur. manāya, “the allotted, fate, especially of death”. She was therefore a goddess of fate, especially of death. Her main sanctuary was a black stone among the Hud̲h̲ailīs in Ḳudaid, not far from Mecca on the road to Medīna near a hill ca…
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