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NāḲūs

(170 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. nawāḳīs, a kind of rattle used and in some places still used by Christians in the east to summon the community to divine service. It is a board pierced with holes which is beaten with a rod. The name, which comes from the Syriac nāḳūs̲h̲ā is not infrequently found with the verbs ḍaraba or ṣakka in the old Arabic poets, especially when early morning is to be indicated, e. g. ʿAntara, app.; Labīd, N°. 19, 6; Z.D.M.G., xxxiii. 215; Mutalammis, ed. Vollers, p. 178, v. 6; al-Aʿs̲h̲ā in Nöldeke’s Delectus, p. 26; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 92. According to tradition, Muḥammad hesitated b…

Māriya

(744 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a Copt maiden, according to one statement, daughter of a man named S̲h̲amʿūn, who was sent with her sister Sīrīn by Muḳawḳis [q.v.] in the year 7 a.h. to Muḥammad as a gift of honour (according to another authority there were four of them). The Prophet made her his concubine, while he gave Sīrīn to Ḥassan b. T̲h̲ābit. He was very devoted to her and gave her a house in the upper town of Madīna, where he is said to have visited her by day and night; this house was called after her the mas̲h̲raba of the mother of Ibrāhīm. To the great joy of the Prophet, she bore bim a son whom he called I…

Subḥān Allāh

(526 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, “Praise be to Allāh”, a religious formula, frequent in the Ḳurʾān. It is an accusative of exclamation from a root which does not occur in Arabic (the verb sabhaḥa is rightly explained by the grammarians as derived from the noun), but which goes back as a loanword to Aramaic and was also adopted in Hebrew and Ethiopie, viz.: s̲h̲ebaḥ “to praise”. Muḥammad probably found the expression somewhere among “the possessors of a scripture”, as it is not probable that he himself should have created such a form from a non-Arabic verb. It is also evidence of an extensive use of the word that subḥāna is foun…

al-ʿUzzā

(845 words)

Author(s): Būhl, Fr.
, an old Arabian goddess, whose name means “the Strong, the Powerful”. She was especially associated with the G̲h̲aṭafān (cf. Yāḳūt, i. 296) but her principal sanctuary was in the valley of Nak̲h̲la on the road from Ṭāʾif to Mecca (cf. Yāḳūt, iv. 765 sqq.) to which Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit (ed. Hirschfeld, xci. 3, where nak̲h̲la is to be read) refers. It consisted of three samura (acacia) trees in one of which the goddess revealed herself. It also included the sacred stone (Wāḳidī, transl. Wellhausen, p. 351) and the so-called G̲h̲abg̲h̲ab, a cave into wh…

al-Muzdalifa

(397 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a place roughly halfway between Minā and ʿArafat where the pilgrims returning from ʿArafat spend the night between the 9th and 10th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a, after performing the two evening ṣalāts. On the next morning they set off before sunrise and climb up through the valley of Muḥassir to Minā. Other names for this place are al-Mas̲h̲ʿar al-ḥarām, from Sūra ii. 194 and Ḏj̲amʿ (cf. Lailat Ḏj̲amʿ: Ibn Sʿad, II/i. 129, 6)i but Ḏj̲amʿ, According to another statement, comprises the whole stretch between ʿArafat and Minā, both included, so that Yawm Ḏj̲amʿ (Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vi. 30, 11) is …

al-Urdunn

(2,015 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the Jordan, Hebrew (ha) Yardēn, but in LXX, Josephus, Pliny and others ó ¶ ΙορδάνηΣ. The etymology of the word is obscure and it is even thought by some to be a loanword (cf. the river name ΙαρδανοΣ in Crete). After the Crusades the name al-S̲h̲arīʿa (al-kabīra), the “(great) watering-place” came into use and is still the most usual name among the Beduins. 1. The Jordan is formed by the combination of three streams: al-Ḥasbānī, Nahr Leddān and Nahr Bānyās. Shortly after their junction, the Jordan reaches the Ḥūle district and here flows through the lake of…

Mug̲h̲ammas

(201 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or according to others Mug̲h̲ammis, a valley near Mecca on the borders of the sacred area. According to tradition, Abraha [q. v.] ordered his army to encamp here when he was going to attack Mecca, but was prevented from doing so as birds slew his soldiers by dropping stones on them. In Mug̲h̲ammas is shown the tomb of the Ṭāʾifī Abū Rig̲h̲āl who died here after acting as guide to Abraha. He was so hated by the Meccans for this that the custom grew up of casting stones on his grave [cf. al-d̲j̲amra]. Whether this explanation is true or not is unknown, but in any case a verse of Hassān b…

Umm Kult̲h̲ūm

(193 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, daughter of Muḥammad. Tradition knows even less of her than of her sister Ruḳaiya and this little consists mainly of a repetition of what is told of the latter. Umm Kult̲h̲ūm is said to have married a son of Abū Lahab but to have been divorced by him by his father’s orders before the marriage was consummated; what this means is discussed in the article roḳaiya. The view there expressed that Umm Kult̲h̲ūm was really married to a son of Abū Lahab is supported by the usual “and literal interpretation of her kunya (her real name is nowhere recorded). That at a later date efforts should ha…

Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, greatgrandson of Ḥasan, the eldest son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, was one of the ʿAlids who did not spend their time passively awaiting the fulfilment of their aspirations, but endeavoured to realise them by personal effort. He and his brother Ibrāhīm had, according to Wāḳidī, been brought up as future rulers and Muḥammad was called al-Mahdī by his father. As early as the reign of the Umaiyad caliph His̲h̲ām, the two sectarians al-Mug̲h̲īra [q. v.] and Bayān [q. v.] who did not recognise Muḥammad b. …

Ṭabarīya

(1,895 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tiberias, a town on the western side of the lake of Tiberias (sea of Galilee) ( Buḥairat Ṭabarīya) through which the Jordan flows to the south; the lake is rich in fishes, is 13 miles long, 6 broad and lies 700 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; the town is long and narrow as it is shut in by the steep hills on the west which come right down to the water, north and south of the town. S.S.W. of the town is the Mount of Herod. Ṭabarīya had probably a predecessor in a little town in this ¶ region mentioned in the Old Testament (on account of the hot springs some identify it with Hammat,…

al-Ḏj̲awlān

(628 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a district in the north of the country east of the Jordan. The modern Ḏj̲ōlān is bounded in the west by the Jordan, in the north by the slopes of Hermon, in the east by the Nahr al-Ruḳḳād and the Nahr al-ʿAllān and in the south by the Yarmūk. It is divided into a high lying northern part and a lower southern part. The north is wild and covered with shapeless blocks of lava; its former wealth of forest, particularly oak-trees, has now practically disappeared, but it is covered with a rank growt…

al-Ḥasan

(178 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Zaid b. Ḥasan, a great-grandson of ʿAlī. He was a pious man, who, following the example of his father and grandfather, abandoned all political aspirations and reconciled himself to ʿAbbāsid rule. His daughter became the wife of the Caliph Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, while he himself lived at the Caliph’s court, and is even said to have occasionally communicated the views of his ʿAlid relatives and their dependants to al-Manṣūr. In 150 = 767 al-Manṣur made him governor of Medīna, but in 155 = 772 he aroused …

Ḏh̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā

(818 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, an ancient Arab deity. According to the Arab tradition he was a god who owned a reserved grazing-ground ( ḥimā) among the Dawsites (Wüstenfeld, Genealogische Tabellen, 10, 20) with a hollow into which the water trickled down from the rocks, which is in agreement with the fact that the name ʿAbd Ḏh̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā is found in this tribe. According to al-Kalbī (Wüstenfeld, ¶ 10, 24) also, this deity was worshipped among the related Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲; cf. also Lane, was, according to whom the site of his cult was al-Sarāt. We meet with Ḏh̲u ’l-S̲h̲arā (Dusares) …

al-Ḥasan

(516 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Zaid b. Muḥammad, a greatgrandson of the preceding, founder of an ʿAlid dynasty in Ṭābaristān. The high-handed and ruthless rule of the Ṭāhirids produced such resentment in this country that a number of men, under the ¶ influence of the strong ʿAlid sentiment in these regions, looked around for a man of ʿAlī’s line to whom they could entrust the government. They therefore turned to Ḥasan who was living in Raiy and had been recommended to them by another ʿAlid; the choice proved a fortunate one, for Ḥasan possessed an energy and …

Ḍarīya

(335 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a district in Central Arabia, so-called after a well with a village beside it on the road from Mecca to Baṣra, 32 Arab miles from Ḏj̲adīla, 18 (according to Ibn Rusta, 28) miles from Ṭik̲h̲fa. According to the Arabs, it took its name from Ḍarīya, the daughter of Rabīʿa, the mother of the Ḳuḍāʿī Ḥulwān. It was a much frequented halting-place for pilgrims, for here was the junction with the road from Baḥrain. It was under Medīna for administrative purposes. The district of Ḍarīya, of whose wells and mountains al-Bakrī gives a detailed account, included the area, called Ḥemmey (probably = Ḥimā) o…

Ibrāhīm

(421 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. ʿAbd Allāh, son of the greatgrandson of ʿAlī, ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan [q. v.] was brought up with his brother Muḥammad [q. v.] in the expectation of one day becoming Caliph. They therefore considered the ʿAbbāsids as usurpers and with all the more justice as before the fall of the Omayyads, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar. is said to have paid homage to Muḥammad as Caliph. The brothers were therefore no little danger to him and as Caliph he sent officers to search for them, so that they were forced to wander from …

Buʿāt̲h̲

(248 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a place near Medīna famous for the battle fought there between the related tribes of the Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, some years before the Migration of Muḥammad and his adherents to that town. It belonged to the Jewish tribe of Ḳuraiẓa, and according to Samhūdī, was two miles east (to be more accurate south-east) of Medīna, above a cornfield called Ḳawrā. A few incidental mentions of the place in the traditions help to locate it more accurately. Muḥammad’s men, who slew Kaʿb b. Ashraf, went past the …

Ṭawāf

(832 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.) from ṭāfa with bi of place) encircling; in the language of ritual the running round or circumambulation of a sacred object, a stone, altar, etc. There are traces of the rite having existed among the Israelites, cf. especially Ps. xxvi. 6 (xxvii. 6, lxx.) and the ceremony of the feast of booths in the time of the Second Temple, where the altar is circumambulated once on the first six days and seven times on the seventh. The rite however was also found among Persians, Indians, Buddhists, Romans a…

Maimūna

(211 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the last wife that Muḥammad married. She was the daughter of al-Ḥārit̲h̲ of the Hawāzin tribe of Ṣaʿṣaʿa and a sister-in-law of ʿAbbās. After she had divorced her first husband, a T̲h̲aḳīfī, and her second, the Ḳurais̲h̲ī Abū Rukm, had died, she lived as a widow in Mecca where the Prophet wooed her, primarily no doubt for political reasons, on the ʿumra allowed him in the year 7. His wish to marry her in Mecca was refused by the Meccans in order not to prolong his stay there; the marriage therefore took place in Sarif, ¶ a village north of Mecca. Her brother-in-law ʿAbbās acted as her gu…

Ḥaṭṭīn or Ḥiṭṭīn

(255 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, in the Talmud Kefar Ḥaṭṭīye, a village to the west of and above Tiberias on a fertile plain, the southern border of which is formed by a steep limestone ridge. At both the western and eastern ends of the ridge there is a higher summit called Ḳurūn Ḥaṭṭīn. A tradition, known in the xiith century, the origin of which is uncertain, places the tomb of the prophet S̲h̲uʿaib (Yitro) here; the little chapel, which has been rebuilt in modern times and is annually visited by the Druses, lies on an elevation in a rocky valley at the western summit. On the …
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