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(251 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.) or Ḵh̲atma, the technical name for the recitation of the whole of the Ḳurʾān from beginning to end. It is an infinitive from k̲h̲atama, which is derived with the meaning “to end, to conclude” from the foreign word k̲h̲ātam, “seal, seal-ring” (Frānkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen, p. 252), because the seal was affixed at the end of a document. The complete recitation of the Ḳurʾān is, especially if it is done within a short time, a meritorious achievement, e. g. in 8 nights, as Ubaiy b. Kaʿb is said to have done (Ibn Saʿd, 111/ii. 60, 23; cf. on ʿUt̲h̲mān ibid., 111/i. 53, 3). …

Madyan S̲h̲uʿaib

(742 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town on the east side of the Gulf of Akaba. The name is, connected with that of the tribe of Midianites known from the Old Testament (lxx.: Μαδιαμ, Μαδιαν; in Josephus Μαδιηνίται, ή Μαδιηνὴ χωρα) but it can hardly be used without further consideration to identify the original home of this tribe, as the town might be a later Midianite settlement and besides it is difficult to fix the real home of such wandering tribes. In the Old Testament a town of Midian is not mentioned (not even in I Kings, xi. 18 where “Maʿon” should probably be read). On the other hand Josephus ( Archaeology, ii. II, 1) know…


(347 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, al-G̲h̲ōr, “depression”, “low lying ground among hills”, is often found as an Arab geographical term. 1. The best known is G̲h̲awr in Palestine, the Αὐλών of the Greeks, i. e. the deep hollow through which the Jordan flows, the south end of which forms the Dead Sea. The Arab geographers define its boundaries as Tiberias in the north and Zug̲h̲ar in the south. The portion north of Baisān belonged to the province of al-Urdunn, the remainder to Filasṭīn (q. v., ii. 107 et seq.) It is described as a very hot, unhealthy district with bad water, but there were a number of springs, r…


(999 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(or more correctly: Maḥmil, a.), the name of the splendidly decorated empty litters, which since the xiiith century have been sent by Muḥammadan princes on the Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ to Mecca, to display their independence and claims to a place of honour at the ceremony. The camel which bears the maḥmal is not ridden but led by the bridle. It goes at the head of the caravan and is regarded as its sanctifying element. What extravagance the rivalry of princes led to is shown by the mention of a maḥmal adorned with much gold, pearls and jewels, which was ¶ sent in 721 (1321) from the ʿIrāḳ to Mecca ( Die Chroniken d…


(202 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, one of the districts attached to the province of Damascus, lying ‘between Bānyās and Tyros’. Its southern end is the Lake of Ḥūla, which the geographers also call Lake Ḳadas, formed by the Jordan and surrounded by swamps full of springs. The present inhabitants use the name Baḥret al-Ḵh̲ēṭ. According to Muḳaddasī the water was dammed back by the erection of a wall to increase the lake. The banks were covered with ḥalfāʾ plants, out of which the inhabitants wove mats and ropes. The lake is full of fish, among which Muḳaddasī mentions the bunnī, which had been introduced from Wāsiṭ. (Cf. …


(623 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the capital of the Lak̲h̲mid kings, 3 Arab miles south of Kūfa, an hour’s ride southeast of Nad̲j̲af (Mes̲h̲hed ʿAlī), on the lake of Nad̲j̲af, now almost dry close to the edge of the desert. The name is Aramaic (corresponding to the Syr. ḥertā, and Hebr. ḥāṣēr) and means literally “camp” but was transferred as a proper name to the permanent camp of the Lak̲h̲mid chiefs under Persian suzerainty, from which the city gradually developed. The date of its origin, placed by the Arabs in the time of Nebuchadnezar, cannot be accurately fixed; bis…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī

(286 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a grandson of Ḥusain the son of ʿAlī; his kunya was Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar. On account of his learning he was given the honorific name of al-Bākir (the investigator, who goes deeply into things). He was a recognised authority on Tradition and a number of pious utterances are also recorded of him; he had at the same time the characteristic fondness of his family for embroidered silk garments and colours. That he did not escape the usual fate of his family of being celebrated by a section of the S̲h̲īʿīs as an imām is shown by a poem of the ʿId̲j̲lī Abū Huraira; but he lived contentedly in Medīn…


(566 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, standing stone, especially one which is held sacred. The root is the same as in the Hebrew maṣṣēba, Phoenician nṣb and mṣbt and South Arabian nṣb, mṣb. On the explanation of the Arabic forms the philologists are not agreed. They usually regard nuṣb as a singular with the plural anṣāb, but others pronounce it nuṣub and consider it the plural of naṣb or niṣāb. In addition to these forms Arabic has also from the same root the substantives manṣab and naṣība. In answer to the much discussed question of the ideas associated with standing stones, Arabia only makes one contribution…


(765 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), the term applied in the Ḳurʾān to those Medīnese upon whose fidelity and zeal Muḥammad could not absolutely rely. The Arabs (e. g. Mubarrad, Kāmil, ed. Wright, p. 153) derive the word from nāfiḳāʾ (“one of the entrances to the hole of a fieldmouse”), but it is certainly the borrowed Ethiopie manāfeḳ “heretic” from nafaḳa to “split”, nāfaḳa “to be divided, irresolute”. The meaning “waverer”, “doubter” quite fits the usual use of the word in the Ḳurʾān, while the usual translation “hypocrite” only suits a few passages. Another description of the sa…


(394 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, daughter of the Meccan ʿOtba b. Rabīʿa, of the family of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, which was related to the Hās̲h̲imids. She was the wife of Abū Sufyān, to whom she bore several children including Muʿāwiya, afterwards Caliph. Tradition seems to take a special delight in drawing an unusually repulsive and no doubt caricatured picture of the short, stout woman, who certainly had a very passionate temperament. Her hatred of Muḥammad was increased by the fact that Ḥamza killed her father in the battle of Badr…


(184 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
or Arbad (corruption of an older Arbel, see the following article), the old town (of which the ruins only now exist) ofhrbela, on a hill on the road from Tiberias through the so-called “Dove Ravine”. Among the ruins those of a synagogue are noteworthy (see Kohl and Watzinger, ¶ Synagogenruinen in Galilea, p. 59 sqq.). The remarkable rock caves in the neigbourhood played an important role in later Jewish history. Tradition places here the tombs of the mother of Moses and of four of the sons of Jacob, Dan, Issachar, Zebulon and Gad. Another Irbid-Arbad, likewise an ancient Arbela, lies in…


(618 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of Abū Bakr and one of his wives, Asmāʾ of the tribe of Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam. He was born in the last year of Muḥammad’s life so that his father could not have exercised any influence on him, while the memories of Abū Bakr’s great friend which were kept alive in his family must have had all the more influence on the passionate nature of the boy, which receives important confirmation from the fact that Ibn Ḳutaiba describes him as one of the “pious” ( nussāk) among the Ḳurais̲h̲ When in the reign of ʿUt̲h̲mān the bitterness at the preference of the Umaiyads in combination with a re…


(713 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, originally a pebble, is particularly used of the heaps of stones in the valley of Minā which have been formed by the stones thrown by the pilgrims returning from the festival at ʿArafat. There are three heaps which are a bowshot from one another: al-d̲j̲amra al-ūlā (or al-dunyā) to the east near the Mosque of al-Ḵh̲aif, al-d̲j̲amra al-wusṭā in the centre and d̲j̲amrat (d̲h̲āt-)al-ʿAḳaba at the western exit of the valley. The first two are bounded by thick stone pillars and the third by a wall. Al-Muḥaṣṣab is also used for al-Ḏj̲amra but it is also the name of a plain between Mec…


(333 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, al-Abras̲h̲ or al-Waḍḍāḥ (i. e. the leper), a legendary Arab king, who founded an important kingdom on the lower Euphrates, including the towns of al-Ḥīra, al-Anbār etc., before the Lak̲h̲mid dynasty appeared in this territory. Traditions vary as to his relationship to the other rulers, who are mentioned in the pre-Lak̲h̲mid period, though the North Arabian legends are agreed that he was an Azdite. Stories of him are very popular and various Arabic proverbs refer to him. So proud was he that he ¶ would only have two stars or idols ( al-Farḳadāni, or al-Ḍaizanāni, or al-Ḍarībāni) as his bo…

Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafīya

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of ʿAlī and Ḵh̲awla. a woman of the tribe of the Banū Ḥanīfa, who had been brought a prisoner to Medīna after the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [q, v.] and came into ʿAlī’s possession (cf. Saiyid’s poem Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 4: “she was a servant in the house”); he was born in 16 a. h. Although he did not, like Ḥasan and Ḥusain, have the blood of the Prophet in his veins, he became involved not only in the political turmoils but also in the schemes which the boundless fancies of the extreme S̲h̲īʿīs built up around the family of ʿAlī. He was not to bl…


(867 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Nazareth, the home of Jesus, lies in a depression sloping to the south surrounded by hills in a fertile district. While the hills to the north and northeast are not very high, in the northwest the Ḏj̲ebel al-Sīk̲h̲, rises to 1,600 feet above sea-level. The name of the town, which does not occur in the Old Testament, is found in the New and in the Greek fathers of the Church in the varying forms Ναζαρα Ναζαρετ and Nαζαρεϧ with ζ, but according to Jerome it had in Hebrew a ṣade, which is confirmed by the Syriac Nāṣrat and the Arabic Nāṣira as well as by the Taimudic derivative form , pl. while the Christ…


(235 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a woman of the Banū Saʿd b. Bakr, according to Tradition, Muḥammad’s nurse. In a year of famine she came to Mecca with other women of her tribe to seek foster-children and finally adopted the orphan Muḥammad, who soon brought great happiness to her household. During his stay with her, two angels came to him, opened his breast and took out a black clot of blood. Although in the later accounts of Muḥammad’s wars there are one or two illusions to his foster-kinship with the Banū Saʿd, the whole s…

G̲h̲adīr al-K̲h̲umm

(236 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a pond or marsh formed by a spring in a wādī on the left of the road from Medīna to Mecca, three (according to others one or two) Arab miles from Ḏj̲uḥfa. The Arab geographers mention the thick trees that surround it and the mosque of the Prophet lying between it and the spring; the few inhabitants belonged in Yāḳūt’s time to the Ḵh̲uzāʿa and Kināna. Near it was al-Ḵh̲arrār, to which Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ was sent in the year 1 A. 11. with a few followers by the Prophet. The place has become famous through a tradition which had its origin among the S̲h̲īʿīs but ¶ is also found among Sunnīs, viz., the Prophet on journey back from Hudaibiya (according to others from the farewell pilgrimage) here said of ʿAlī: Whomsoever I am lord of, his lord is ʿAlī also! In memory of this in later times a feast was observed by the S̲h̲īʿīs. (Fr. Buhl) Bibliography Wellhausen, Vakidi, p. 31, 425 Kumait, Hās̲h̲imīyāt (ed. Horovitz), vi. v. 9 Yaʿḳūbī, Bibl. geogr. arab. (ed. de Goeje), vii. 314 Masʿūdī, ibid. viii. 234, 255 Bekrī, Geogr. Wörterbuch (ed. Wüstenfeld), p. 232, 3…

Bait Ḏj̲abrīn

(469 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(Ḏj̲ibrīn) or, after a popular etymology: Bait Ḏj̲ibrīl (Gabriel’s house), a town in southwestern Judea. It was the successor of the neighbouring town of Mares̲h̲a, destroyed by the Parthians (again discovered in Sandahanna) and is first mentioned by Josephus ( Bell. Jud. iv. 8, 1, where ΒηταβριΣ; is undoubtedly a corruption of the name) and by Ptolemy v. 15, 5 as Β…


(758 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a contemptuous diminutive from Maṣlama, which is the form of his name given in Mubarrad, Kāmil, ed. Wright, p. 443, 5; Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 422 ult.; cf. Ṭulaiḥa [q. v.] for Ṭalḥa), a prophet of the Banū Ḥanīfa in Yamāma contemporary with Muḥammad. His genealogy is variously given but always contains the name Ḥabīb; his kunya was Abū T̲h̲umāma. According to the usual account, he appeared as a prophet soon after the death of Muḥammad, after having visited the latter in Medīna with a deputation. There is however another tradition according to …
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