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al-Madīna

(10,477 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in Arabia, the residence of Muḥammad after the Hid̲j̲ra, and capital of the Arab empire under the first caliphs. The real Arabic name of the town was Yat̲h̲rib, Jathrippa (this is the correct reading) in Ptolemy and Stephan Byzantinus, Jt̲h̲rb in Minaean inscriptions (M. Hartmann, Die arabische Frage, p. 253

Ṣiffīn

(2,430 words)

Author(s): Būhl, Fr.
, in Theophanes, Chronographia, 347: Sapphin, in a Syriac inscription of the beginning of the ninth century ṣfʾ (Chabot in J. A., 1900, p. 285), a place not far from the right bank of the Euphrates, west of Raḳḳa, between it and Balis, separated from the river by a strip of marshland an arrowshot broad (according to B.G.A., vii. 22, 15: 500 ells) and two parasangs long, overgrown with dense willows and Euphrates palms, full of waterholes, through which a single paved road led to the Euphrates. The place was made famous by the great battle fought there in…

ʿĀmmān

(162 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the old capital of the Ammonites, in the Old Testament Rabbat Benē ʿAmmōn or Rabba, later Rabbatamana, Amman, Ammana or called by the hellenistie name Philadelphia. This city, which at the time of the Romans was of great importance, was taken by Yazīd b. Abī ¶ Sufyān after the capture of Damascus (14 = 635). It became the capital of the fruitful region of al-Balḳāʾ with a trade …

K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a

(507 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Muḥammad’s first wife, was a daughter of Ḵh̲uwailid of the Ḳurais̲h̲ family of ʿAbd al-ʿUzzā. The authorities are unanimous in saying that when she made Muḥammad’s acquaintance and took him into her service she was a well-to-do merchant’s widow who was carrying on business independently. She had been twice married previously and had children of both marriages. The one husband was a Mak̲h̲zūmī, the other a Tamīmī, Abū Hāla, whose real name is variously given; but this Abū Hāla is also mentioned…

S̲h̲uʿaib

(322 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a prophet mentioned in the Ḳurʾān who, according to Sūra xi. 91, came later than Hūd, Ṣālih and Lot; according to Sūra xxvi. 176—189 which belongs to the middle Meccan period he was sent to the “people of the thicket” ( al-Aika) who are again mentioned in 1. 13; xv. 78; xxxviii. 12. In the later Meccan Sūras, xi. 85—98; xxix. 35 sq.; vii. 83—91, he appears ¶ among the inhabitants of Madyan [q. v.] as their brother Only later commentators identify him with the unnamed father-in-law of Moses the Old Testament Jethro who lived in Madyan mentioned in xxviii. 21 sqq. (cf. v. 45), but there is no fo…

Taḥrīf

(1,429 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), corruption of a document, whereby the original sense is altered. It may happen in various ways, by direct alteration of the written text, by arbitrary alterations in reading aloud the text which is itself correct, by omitting parts of it or by interpolations or by a wrong exposition of the true sense. The Muslims found occasion to deal with this conception in connection with those passages in the Ḳurʾān where Muḥammad accused the Jews of falsifying the books of revelation given them, i. e. the Thora, ḥarrafū [cf. ḳorʾān, vol. ii. 1066a]. This accusation was really the only way of…

al-Muhād̲j̲irūna

(953 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the emigrants, a name often applied in the Ḳurʾān to those followers of Muḥammad who had migrated from Mecca to Medīna with him. The word is derived from hid̲j̲ra, which does not mean “flight” but breach, dissolution of an association based on origin, in the place of which a new connection is formed. The term muhād̲j̲ir is not applied to the Prophet himself bat only to those who migrated with him and later made up a considerable portion of the population of Medīna. The followers of the Prophet who were natives of Mecca were given the name Anṣār [q. v.] to distinguish them from the Muhād̲j̲…

Bait Laḥm

(386 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, the ancient Bethlehem. The Arab geographers describe the town as the birthplace of Jesus, where there are an incomparably beautiful church (the Basilika built by Constantine), the grotto where Jesus was born, the graves of David and Solomon (which Christian tradition had previously located here, cf. R. Hartmann in Zeitschr. des deutschen Palästina- Vereins, xxxiii. 180 et seq.) and the palm mentioned in the Ḳorʾān (Sura 19, 25) — a most wonderful tree for there are no other palms in the district. — The description given by Bishop Arculfus of Bethlehe…

G̲h̲umdān

(378 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a castle in Ṣanʿā in the Yaman, famous for its size and splendour. Hamdānī and other contemporary geographers give very full descriptions of it, but by that time it had long been merely a gigantic ruin. It is said to have been already destroyed when the Abyssinians conquered the Yaman in 525 a. d. It was then rebuilt, however, for, according to an oft quoted verse, which is ascribed by some to the father of the celebrated Umaiya b. Abi ’l-Ṣalt, it was the abode of Ḏh̲ū Yazan’s son, after the Persians had conquered South Arabia about 570. Several …

Palmyra

(1,589 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Tadmur, now Tudmur, theancient Tadmor, called Palmyra by the Greeks (probably a corruption of the older name by a popular etymology; cf. Hommel, in Z.D.M.G., xliv. 547; M. Hartmann, in Z.D.P. V., xx/ii. 128 sqq.) lies northeast of Damascus in the great desert in an oasis watered by two springs. The water is sulphurous but drinkable after it has settled. The climate is unfavourable, having great differences of temperature between day and night and being unbearably hot in summer and sometimes having snow in winter. What it lacked…

Roḳaiya

(336 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, daughter of Muḥammad. That he had four daughters by Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a is repeated by all authorities, but there is no agreement regarding their order, which clearly shows that they aroused little interest in the early period. It is further suspicious that practically the same story is told of two of them, Roḳaiya and Umm Kult̲h̲ūm. They are both said to have married sons of Muḥammad’s uncle Abū Lahab [q. v.] but were forced by their father to divorce them when Muḥammad began his career as a prophet.…

Ḏj̲aidūr

(168 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, Ḏj̲ēdūr, is the name now given to the district east of northern Ḏj̲ōlān (cf. the article d̲j̲awlān) separated from it by the upper Nahr al-Ruḳḳād. Al-Nuḳra is its southern continuation. It is only rarely mentioned by Arab authors. Yāḳūt distinguishes it from Ḏj̲awlān but adds that others combine the two districts. He also mentions it as the district in which lay al-Ḏj̲ābiya [q.v., p. 988]. His statements are however, as for these districts in general, somewhat unreliable, for he says that the towns of Ṣaramān,…

Had̲j̲ar

(396 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
in South Arabia means “town” and is therefore often found in place-names; for example there was a Had̲j̲ar in Nad̲j̲rān, one in Ḏj̲āzān and several in Mād̲h̲in, all in South Arabia. The best known is Had̲j̲ar in southern Baḥrain, the ancient capital of the land. It lay in a fertile district rich in palms ( Ḥamāsa, p. 811, v. 1; whence the proverb, Prov. Arab., ed. Freytag, iii. 539) and exported a celebrated kind of date-honey. The population was very mixed (cf. Nöldeke, Ṭabarī, transl., p. 59 et seq.). Under Persian rule a Persian governor, to whom the Arab chief was subordinate, …

Muʾta

(847 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a town in the centre of a fertile plain in the land east of Jordan, east of the southern end of the Dead Sea, about two hours’ journey south of Kerak, celebrated for the defeat of the Muslims there in Ḏj̲umādā I of the year 8. According to the Arabic account, the reason why Muḥammad sent 3,000 men to this region was that an envoy whom he had sent to the king (presumably the imperial commandant) of Boṣrā had been murdered by a G̲h̲assānid, but the real reason seems to have been that he wished t…

Bilāl

(487 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
b. Rabāḥ, the first Muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in, a slave of Abyssinian origin, who belonged to a man of the tribe of Ḏj̲umaḥ b. ʿAmr, was early attracted by Muḥammad’s preaching and joined his little band of followers. For this he was persecuted by the Prophet’s enemies, but remained steadfast in his belief in the one God, which induced Abū Bakr to purchase him and give him his freedom. He fled with Muḥammad to Medīna where he immediately found a welcome from Saʿd b. Ḵh̲ait̲h̲ama. He afterwards dwelled in the…

Oḥod

(1,321 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a mountain about three miles north of Medīna, celebrated for the battle fought there in the year 3 which ended unfavourably for Muḥammad. It is a part of the great range of hills which runs from north to south but here spreads to the east over the plain and thus forms an independent group of hills. The rocky walls surmounted by a rectangular plateau — without peaks, Yāḳūt says — “which rise like masses of iron” (Burton) above the plain are quite destitute of trees and plants and only the face …

al-Bat̲h̲anīya

(527 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, corresponds in name to the Bas̲h̲an of the Old Testament, the etymology of which is given by the Arabic bat̲h̲na “soft, fertile area”. Historically however it does not coincide with the kingdom of Bas̲h̲an, mentioned in the Old Testament, which comprised the whole northern half of the Eastern land of Jordan, but was first applied to the district of Batanaea which in the Graeco-Roman period only denoted one, though a central, section of this kingdom. As the districts of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis and Auranitis were then ¶ distinguished from Batanaea the Arabs mention also Ḏj̲awān a…

Muḥammad Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
, a son of ʿAlīb. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] and K̲h̲awla. a woman of the tribe of the Banū Ḥanīfa, who had been brought a prisoner to Medina after the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [ q.v.] and came into ʿAlī’s possession (cf. al-Sayyid’s poem Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, vii, 4: “she was a servant in the house”); he was born in 16 a.h. ¶ Although he did not, like al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, have the blood of the Prophet in his veins, he became involved not only in the political turmoils but also in the schemes which the boundless fancies of the extreme S̲h̲īʿīs built up around the family…

K̲h̲atma, K̲h̲itma

(221 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(a.), pl. k̲h̲itām , the technical name for the recitation of the whole of the Ḳurʾān from beginning to end, the verbal noun from k̲h̲ātama , denominative verb from k̲h̲ātam [ q.v.]. The complete recitation of the Ḳurʾān is, especially if it is done within a short time, a meritorious achievement, e.g. in eight nights, as Ubayy b. Kaʿb is said to have done (Ibn Saʿd, iii/2, 60, 23; cf. on ʿUt̲h̲mān, ibid., iii/1, 53, 3). It is related of Sulaymān al-Aʿmas̲h̲ ¶ that he accomplished the k̲h̲atma at times according to ʿUt̲h̲mān’s recension and at times according …

Nāḳūs

(171 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr.
(A.), pl. nawāḳīs, simandre, crécelle ou hagiosidère, instrument dont se servaient les Chrétiens orientaux et dont ils se servent encore par endroits pour appeler les fidèles au service divin. C’est une planche percée de trous sur laquelle on frappe avec un martelet de bois. Ce mot, qui est emprunté au syriaque nāḳūs̲h̲ā, se rencontre souvent chez les anciens poètes arabes avec les verbes ḍaraba ou ṣakka, surtout quand on doit annoncer les matines, par ex. ʿAntara, Append.; Labīd, 19, vers 6; ZDMG, XXXIII, 215; Mutalammis, éd. Vollers, 178, vers 6; ¶ al-Aʿs̲h̲ā dans le Delectus de Nöldek…
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