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Crusades

(3,532 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Originally applied to military and religious expeditions organized in Western Europe and intended to take back from and defend against Islam the Holy Places of Palestine and nearby Syria, the term was later extended to all wars waged against "infidels" and even to any undertaking carried out in the name of a worthy or supposedly worthy cause; naturally these extensions of meaning are not part of our present concern. The first Crusade (1096-99), following on from expeditions against the Muslims in the West, led to the establishment around Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antio…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(275 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, al-malik al-amd̲j̲ad , b. Farruk̲h̲ S̲h̲āh b. S̲h̲āhāns̲h̲āh b. Ayyūb, grand nephew of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, was appointed by the latter to succeed his father at Baʿlbak when the latter died in 578/1182 (ʿImād al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī, al-Barḳ al-S̲h̲āmī , Bodl. MS. Marsh 425, 36r°, followed by Abū S̲h̲āma, Rawḍatayn 1, Cairo, 33-4), and kept Baʿlbak when the Ayyūbid territories were divided up after the death of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn. From then on he seems always to have been a faithful vassal of the Ayyūbid ruling at Damascus (Ibn Wāṣil, Mufarrid̲j̲ , years 599, 603, 606, 618, 62…

K̲h̲iṭaṭ

(353 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), pl. of k̲h̲iṭṭa , the various quarters of the newly-founded early Islamic towns which the Arab-Islamic chiefs laid out (root k̲h̲.ṭ.t ) for the population groups which they attracted thither or for their respective leaders. Historical-administrative concerns led fairly quickly to the appearance of a literary genre which consisted of a description of the historical topography of these k̲h̲iṭaṭ . This happened in regards to Bag̲h̲dād, and one finds chapters of this nature in the “geographical” works of Ibn al-Faḳīh al-Hamad̲h̲ān…

Āḳ Sunḳur al-Bursuḳī

(421 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( abū saʿīd sayf al-dīn ḳasīm al-dawla ), originally a mamlūk of Bursuḳ [ q.v.], and one of the principal officers of the Sald̲j̲uḳid sultans Muḥammad and Maḥmūd. He became prominent firstly through his activities as military governor ( s̲h̲iḥna ) of al-ʿIrāḳ, and later, at the end of his life, as governor of Mosul, which office he held simultaneously with the former. Appointed s̲h̲iḥna in 498/1105. his main task was to oppose the Mazyadite Arabs of Dubays [ q.v.], who were infesting the environs of Bag̲h̲dād. In his first government of Mosul (507/1113) his chief duty was …

Ibn Muyassar

(485 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(not Mīsar) Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf . . . . b. D̲j̲alab Rāg̲h̲ib . 628-77/1231-78, Egyptian historian. He was descended, hence his by-name, from a Tunisian “imported” at the beginning of the 6th/12th century by an Egyptian amīr named Rāg̲h̲ib; under Saladin, the family, being excluded from the military career by the formation of the new army, had entered civilian life. Ibn Muyassar owed his name to a maternal ancestor who had apparently himself been ¶ an amīr under the Fāṭimids. His Annales d’Égypte (ed. H. Massé, Cairo 1919; cf. G. Wiet, in JA, 1921) have survived in a unique ma…

ʿAfrīn

(424 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
important right tributary of the Orontes (al-ʿĀṣī [ q.v.]), which it reaches after joining with the Nahr Yāg̲h̲rā (Murād Pas̲h̲a) in the Lake of Antioch and the Nahr al-Aswad (Ḳara-sū), in the ʿAmk. Its wide middle valley, between the Djabal Simān and the Kurd-dag̲h̲, was known in the Middle Ages as the district of the Ḏj̲ūma. The importance of the valley was due to the crossing of the road, which used it to connect Antioch with the districts of the upper Euphrates, with the roads which led from Cilicia…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan , born in about 341/952, third son of the Buwayhid Rukn al-Dawla [ q.v.] and of a daughter of the Daylamī chief al-Ḥasan b. Fayzurān, a cousin of Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], received his laḳab in 364/975 and was summoned in 365/976, with his brothers ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.], the eldest, and Muʾayyid al-Dawla, to his father’s sick-bed, in order to agree what share each would receive of their father’s possessions, under the suzerainty of ʿAḍud al-Dawla; as his portion, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla received the provinces of Hamad̲h̲ān and…

Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Yūsuf b. Ḳi̊zog̲h̲lu,known as Sibṭ

(958 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, famous preacher and historian (581/1185 or 582/1186-654/1256). Son of a Turkish freedman of the vizier Ibn Hubayra and of a daughter of the famous preacher and voluminous writer, Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī of Bag̲h̲dād, from whom he derived the name by which he is known, the young Yūsuf was in fact brought up by this grandfather; after the latter’s death (597/1201), he settled at Damascus, where he joined the Ayyūbid al-Muʿaẓẓam, then his successors al-Nāṣir Dāwūd and al-As̲h̲raf. Although he abandoned t…

Bag̲h̲rās

(446 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the ancient Pagrae, guarded the Syrian end of the Baylān pass on the road from Antioch to Alexandretta across the Amanus, and was thus a place of transit and a strategic position of importance. This region, which had been laid waste at the time of the first wars between the Arabs and the Byzantines, was furnished with colonists by Maslama; this initiated a recovery, and His̲h̲ām built a small fort there; it was naturally included in the region of the ʿawāṣim [ q.v.] organised by Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd behind the Syro-Cilician t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr , and there existed there at …

G̲h̲āzī Čelebi

(483 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, ruler of Sinope (700/1300? circa 730/1330 ?) known especially for his piratical exploits against the Genoese, and sometimes alliance with and sometimes against the Greeks of Trebizond (it is known that there were actions in 1313-14, 1319, 1324); there are attributed to him in these raids lack of scruples ( e.g., taking guests captive), audacity (typified by an attack on Kaffa in the Crimea), and skill (he is said to have been able, by swimming under water, to pierce the hull of enemy ships), all of which testify to his reputation (see the epis…

D̲j̲ahīr

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banu ), one of the families of government contractors characteristic of their period who almost completely monopolized the caliph’s vizierate during the protectorate of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳids, and deriving their particular importance from that fact. The founder of the political fortunes of the dynasty, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr, born in al-Mawṣil in 398/1007-8 of a family of rich merchants, entered the service of the S̲h̲īʿī ʿUḳaylid princes of that town; then, after one of them, Ḳirwās̲h̲, fell …

Bābāʾī

(714 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of a religio-social movement which disturbed the Turkomān centres of Asia Minor a few years before the Mongol invasion, and which seems to have been of great importance in the general history of the social and cultural development of the Turkish people. It can only be understood by reference to certain general features of the development of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid state of Rūm. By the 7th/13th century, the latter had become a state with a strong administrative and cultural framework, the prod…

Kak̲h̲tā

(708 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a fortress, now an imposing ruin, which stands on a precipitous ridge dominating the ancient site of Arsaneia in Commagene, recently identified by F. Dörner; the name does not appear before the 6th/12th century. The region, of which Gerger, on the upper reaches of the Euphrates at the mouth of the gorges, was in reality the chief centre, played only a minimal role in the Arab-Byzantine wars during the first centuries of Islam, since the main passes lie further to the west or north, and there was ¶ no need for the fortress of Kak̲h̲tā, which commanded the outlet of a valley in the…

al-ʿAẓīmī

(225 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Muḥ. b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ., Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Tanūk̲h̲ī. called~) (483/1090-post 556/1161), chronicler of Aleppo. A full but dry universal history—mainly Syrian—by him, which extends to the year 538/1143-44 (published by me—from the year 455/1063—in J A , 1938, 353-448), has come down to us, but in addition, he composed above all a great History of Aleppo which was used copiously especially by Kamāl al-Dīn b. al-ʿAdīm and Ibn Abī Ṭayyī (the latter up to 556/1161). The interest of the portions of al-ʿAẓimi’s work which have been prese…

Ibn Baḳiyya

(634 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad , vizier to the Būyid ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār [ q.v.], whose history is perhaps difficult to relate objectively since the chroniclers, who wrote from the point of view of the military or bureaucratic aristocracy, were a priori hostile to a parvenu such as he. Coming from a peasant family of Awana (Upper ʿIrāḳ), he had taken advantage of the disturbances during the first half of the 4th/10th century to organize a force which had seized control of the tolls on the Tigris at Takrīt. At the time of the conquest of ʿ…

D̲j̲awālī

(337 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, double plural of d̲j̲ālī (through the intermediate form d̲j̲āliya which is also found, particularly in old papyri), literally “émigrés”, a term which, in administrative usage, very soon served to denote the d̲j̲izya [ q.v.]. Ancient writers believed that the word had originally been applied to the poll-tax on the d̲h̲immī s who were émigrés (driven out) from Arabia; some modern writers have thought that it could have taken on its meaning, by extension, from a term used of the tax on the Jewish community in “Exile” d̲j̲ālūt: there is no trace of any such specific use. It would se…

Aḥdāt̲h̲

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, literally "young men", a kind of urban militia which plays a considerable role in the cities of Syria and Upper Mesopotamia from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th centuries, and is particularly well known at Aleppo and Damascus. Officially, its role is that of a police, charged with public order, fire-fighting, etc., and also, in time of need, with military defence in reinforcement of the regular troops. For these services the aḥdāt̲h̲ receive stipends allocated from the product of certain urban taxes. The only distinction between them and any or…

K̲h̲anzīt

(207 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Grk. Antizene, in Yāḳut Hinzīt), name of the province and of the basin enclosed between the great bend of the Euphrates to the NNW of Malaṭya and the D̲j̲abal Baharmaz, with the “little lake” Göld̲j̲ük (Ar. al-Buḥayra) of Dzovk (Ar. al-Baḥīratān) at its foot ; one of the great communication routes of history passes from here towards the Tigris sources. This region of K̲h̲anzīt was for long Armenian (in the 6th/12th century the Catholicos of the Armenian Church resided at Dzovk) ; after being co…

Ibn al-Muslima

(891 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, by-name first given to Aḥmad b. ʿUmar (d. 415/1024), of the family of the Āl al-Raḳil, and name by which his descendants were known until the 6th/12th century. The most important member of the family was his grandson, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn, known also by the honorific title of raʾīs al-ruʾasāʾ , vizier to the caliphate from 437 to 450/1045-58, concerning whom there have arisen a number of important questions which have not yet been satisfactorily answered. The conquest of Bag̲h̲dād by the Būyids in 334/945 had led …

Būz-Abeh

(358 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, governor of Fārs under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Būz-Abeh was one of the amīr s of Mengubars, the governor of Fārs, for whom he administered the province of Ḵh̲ūzistān. He was also in the army of his superior when the latter, accompanied by other amīrs, moved against the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Masʿūd and was made prisoner at the battle of Kurs̲h̲anba (other sources call the scene of the encounter Pand̲j̲ Angus̲h̲t), later being put to death, in 532/1137-38. Since, after their victory, the sultan’s troops began to plunder the enemy camp, Būz-Abeh attacked and dispersed them. Several prominent amīrs of th…
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