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(1,201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banu ), one of the families of government contractors characteristic of their period who almost completely monopolized the caliph’s vizierate during the protectorate of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳids, and deriving their particular importance from that fact. The founder of the political fortunes of the dynasty, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr, born in al-Mawṣil in 398/1007-8 of a family of rich merchants, entered the service of the S̲h̲īʿī ʿUḳaylid princes of that town; then, after one of them, Ḳirwās̲h̲, fell …


(714 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of a religio-social movement which disturbed the Turkomān centres of Asia Minor a few years before the Mongol invasion, and which seems to have been of great importance in the general history of the social and cultural development of the Turkish people. It can only be understood by reference to certain general features of the development of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid state of Rūm. By the 7th/13th century, the latter had become a state with a strong administrative and cultural framework, the prod…


(708 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a fortress, now an imposing ruin, which stands on a precipitous ridge dominating the ancient site of Arsaneia in Commagene, recently identified by F. Dörner; the name does not appear before the 6th/12th century. The region, of which Gerger, on the upper reaches of the Euphrates at the mouth of the gorges, was in reality the chief centre, played only a minimal role in the Arab-Byzantine wars during the first centuries of Islam, since the main passes lie further to the west or north, and there was ¶ no need for the fortress of Kak̲h̲tā, which commanded the outlet of a valley in the…


(225 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Muḥ. b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ., Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Tanūk̲h̲ī. called~) (483/1090-post 556/1161), chronicler of Aleppo. A full but dry universal history—mainly Syrian—by him, which extends to the year 538/1143-44 (published by me—from the year 455/1063—in J A , 1938, 353-448), has come down to us, but in addition, he composed above all a great History of Aleppo which was used copiously especially by Kamāl al-Dīn b. al-ʿAdīm and Ibn Abī Ṭayyī (the latter up to 556/1161). The interest of the portions of al-ʿAẓimi’s work which have been prese…

Ibn Baḳiyya

(634 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad , vizier to the Būyid ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār [ q.v.], whose history is perhaps difficult to relate objectively since the chroniclers, who wrote from the point of view of the military or bureaucratic aristocracy, were a priori hostile to a parvenu such as he. Coming from a peasant family of Awana (Upper ʿIrāḳ), he had taken advantage of the disturbances during the first half of the 4th/10th century to organize a force which had seized control of the tolls on the Tigris at Takrīt. At the time of the conquest of ʿ…


(337 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, double plural of d̲j̲ālī (through the intermediate form d̲j̲āliya which is also found, particularly in old papyri), literally “émigrés”, a term which, in administrative usage, very soon served to denote the d̲j̲izya [ q.v.]. Ancient writers believed that the word had originally been applied to the poll-tax on the d̲h̲immī s who were émigrés (driven out) from Arabia; some modern writers have thought that it could have taken on its meaning, by extension, from a term used of the tax on the Jewish community in “Exile” d̲j̲ālūt: there is no trace of any such specific use. It would se…


(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, literally "young men", a kind of urban militia which plays a considerable role in the cities of Syria and Upper Mesopotamia from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th centuries, and is particularly well known at Aleppo and Damascus. Officially, its role is that of a police, charged with public order, fire-fighting, etc., and also, in time of need, with military defence in reinforcement of the regular troops. For these services the aḥdāt̲h̲ receive stipends allocated from the product of certain urban taxes. The only distinction between them and any or…


(207 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Grk. Antizene, in Yāḳut Hinzīt), name of the province and of the basin enclosed between the great bend of the Euphrates to the NNW of Malaṭya and the D̲j̲abal Baharmaz, with the “little lake” Göld̲j̲ük (Ar. al-Buḥayra) of Dzovk (Ar. al-Baḥīratān) at its foot ; one of the great communication routes of history passes from here towards the Tigris sources. This region of K̲h̲anzīt was for long Armenian (in the 6th/12th century the Catholicos of the Armenian Church resided at Dzovk) ; after being co…

Ḥasan b. Ustād̲h̲-Hurmuz

(488 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī , one of the leading figures of the Būyid régime at the end of the 4th/10th century. His father, Ustād̲h̲-Hurmuz, one of the ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb of ʿAḍud al-Dawla, is said to have been born in about 300/912; on entering the service of the son and successor of the great Būyid in Fārs, S̲h̲araf al-Dawla, he became governor of ʿUmān for him and then, wishing to transfer his allegiance to the other son, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla, master of ʿIrāḳ, he had to return to private life (374/984). The son, Ḥasan, who…


(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), wood. In the major part of the Muslim world, wood is fairly scarce and for this reason plays a relatively minor rôle in the material life of its populations in comparison with that of societies in which it is more plentiful. However, precisely because its use is limited, it occupies an important place in artistic creation, for example in private furniture and the appurtenances of mosques. Architecturally, it is employed for doors, roofs, arches, etc. and ceilings; it is also used in the ga…


(1,558 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three-Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rum. Kayk̲h̲usraw i , son and one of the successors of Kilid̲j̲ Arslān II [ q.v.]. When the latter, at the age of about seventy, decided ca. 583/1187 to divide his territories among his ten sons, a brother and a nephew, G̲h̲iyāth al-Dīn Kayk̲h̲usraw got Sozopolis or Uluborlu, on the borders of the Byzantine territory, perhaps because he was the son of a Byzantine mother. He thus came in contact with Greek Christians on one side, with groups of Turkmen frontier warriors ( ud̲j̲ ) who were pushing forward in that direction on…

Ibn Abī Ṭayyiʾ

(360 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Yaḥyā b. Ḥamīd al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Ḥalabī (575/1180- ca. 625-30/1228-33), an important S̲h̲īʿī historian of Aleppo, and in particular the author of a universal History, Maʿādin al-d̲h̲ahab fi taʾrīk̲h̲ al-mulūk wa ’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ wa d̲h̲awi ’l-ratab , which even the Sunnī writers, whether or not they acknowledge the fact, were unable to refrain from utilizing. Important extracts from it are to be found preserved in the History of Ibn al-Furāt [ q.v.] and the Rawḍatayn of Abū S̲h̲āma [ q.v.], dealing with the first three-quarters of the 6th/12th century; it was known also …

Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa

(126 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , known as Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa, author of a manual of ḥisba , enlarging, from an Egyptian point of view, that of the Syrian writer of the previous century, al-S̲h̲ayzarī. It was published by R. Levy, with an analysis in English, under the doubtful title of Maʿālim al-ḳurba fī aḥkām al-ḥisba ( GMS, n.s. xii, London 1938); according to the only biographical notice so far discovered, that by Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar ( Durar , Ḥaydarābād no. 446), the author died in 729/1329, and nothing more is known of him. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography In addit…


(147 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
verbal noun of the fourth form of the root w.g̲h̲.r . (?), meaning here an exemption or a privilege with respect to taxes. The classical ʿAbbāsid administration used This term both for the privilege, and for the land which was covered by This privilege, of having to pay only one single tax payment, directly to the Treasury and not through tax-collectors. The districts of Mard̲j̲ and Karad̲j̲ in western Iran are regularly referred to as al-Ig̲h̲ārayn even after they had lost the official status which earned them This name. In the following centuries the term īg̲h̲ār d…


(420 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, prince, son; heir apparet (344/955) and successor (356/967) of Muʾizz al-Dawla in ʿIrāḳ, with the laḳab of ʿIzz al-Dawla. He appears to have had little talent for government, which, unlike his father, he entrusted to wazīrs (chosen without any great discernment) so as to be free to amuse himself, though he still impeded the conduct of affaire by his impetuous verbal or active intervention. At the beginning of his reign he continued his father’s policy of hostility to the Ḥamdānid Abū Tag̲h̲lib of Mawṣil and to the autonomous chieftain ¶ of the Baṭīḥa, ʿImrān b. S̲h̲āhīn. Furthermor…


(763 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, nūr al-dawla balak b. bahrām b. artuḳ , one of the first Artuḳids, known chiefly as a tough warrior. He appears in history in 489/1096 as commander of Sarud̲j̲ on the Middle Euphrates. This locality being taken from him by the Crusaders in the following year, and his uncle Ilg̲h̲āzī having been appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Sulṭān Muḥammad, he accompanied him, and is found in the following years struggling vainly for the little towns of ʿĀna and Ḥadīt̲h̲a, against Arabs, or prot…


(226 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Claudias, a locality of ancient origin (the Claudiopolis of Pliny? cf. Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), the exact site of which has not been determined but which almost certainly commanded the entrance to the Euphrates gorges below Malaṭya/Melitene, between the eastern Taurus and the K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.]. One of the fortified places on the frontier that were captured and re-captured by the Arabs and the Byzantines, it was restored by al-Mansūr, but again fell into Byzantine hands, together with the province of Melitene, in the middle of the 4th/10th …


(982 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, plu. ḍiyāʿ , estate. The word can mean generally a rural property of a certain size, but is understood in a more precise sense in fiscal contexts. It is known that at the time of the Conquests the local people were left in possession of their lands, subject to their paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ ; it was later understood that the conversion of the landowner would not change the fiscal status of the land. In contradistinction to the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ lands there were the original properties of the Arabs, especially in Arabia, and the grants made in favour of notables or their depende…

Köse Dag̲h̲

(382 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a land-corridor some 50 miles/80 km. to the north-west of Sīwās where there took place in 641/1243, probably on 6 S̲h̲awwāl/26 June, the decisive battle which opened up Asia Minor to the Mongols and sounded the knell for the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Rūm. The first contacts of the Mongols and Sald̲j̲ūḳs went back to the last years of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳubād I [ q.v.], but at that time Anatolia was too well-protected in relation to the conquests already effected by the Mongols for the latter really to have any plans for conquering it. It was only under Kayk̲h̲usraw II [ q.v.] that the threat took d…


(879 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, an important seigneurial family which, though it never completely freed itself from the overlordship of its powerful neighbours, possessed for a century extensive lands in Upper Mesopotamia, partly in the east around Irbil and partly in the west, for a shorter period, around Ḥarrān. The founder of the family, Zayn al-Dīn ʿAlī Küčük b. Begtegin, was a Turcoman officer whose fortune was linked from the beginning with that of Zenki. Probably as a result of his participation in this prince’s campa…
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