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Nābig̲h̲a al-Ḏh̲ubyānī

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, a famous poet of the pre-Muḥammadan period. His real name was Ziyād b. Muʿāwiya and he belonged to the tribe of Ḏh̲ubyān. He probably flourished in the second half of the century which preceded Muḥammad and died shortly before the beginning of Islām. Caussin de Perceval ( Histoire des Arabes, 2nd ed., ii. 502) puts the date of his birth in 535 a. d. and Father Cheikho ( Poètes arabes chrétiens, p. 640) dates his death in 604 a. d. These dates however can only be conjectural. The surname Nābig̲h̲a has been variously interpreted by Arab writers. According to some, our poet was so c…


(163 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, “the Bee”, Sūra xvi. of the Ḳurʾān. The title is taken from verse 70: “Thy Lord has made this revelation to the Bee”. Ḵh̲āzin (iii. 105) says that it was also called “Sūra of the Herds” because there are references in several passages to cattle. As to its date, it is reckoned among the later Meccan Sūras and includes several verses of Medīnese origin; the commentators however are not agreed on this point. The Sūra of the “Bee” contains four abrogated verses: verse 69 is annulled by v. 92; verse 84 by ix. 5; verse 108, part 1, annulled by the end of the same verse and by ix. 5. (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliogra…

Rifāʿa Bey

(769 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
al-Ṭahṭāwī, a famous writer of the last century and one of the principal creators of the modern Arabic “Renaissance”. He was born at Ṭahṭa in upper Egypt in 1801. His parents, although of noble descent, were poor. When quite young, he devoted himself to the study of the Ḳurʾān; when a young man, he went to al-Azhar where he studied seriously under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḥassān al-ʿAṭṭār. On leaving al-Azhar in 1824, he was appointed pay-master of the Egyptian army. At this period the celebrated Muḥammad (Mehemet) ʿAlī was ruling Egypt. The latter at the ins…


(216 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, the “Women”, the title of Sūra iv. of the Ḳurʾān; so-called because in the opening verses the position of women is dealt with. Nöldeke ( Geschichte des Qorāns, i. 195) thinks that the greater part belongs to the period between the end of the year 3 and the year 5 a. h. This sūra contains many verses that were abrogated: among the principal we may mention 8—9 abrogated by 12; 10 abrogated by ii. 178; 20 abrogated by xxiv. 2; 33 abrogated by xxiv. 60 etc.... It is also one of the most important sūras of the Ḳurʾān because many of the precepts formulated in it form the foundations …


(89 words)

Author(s): Chemoul, Maurice
, the Ants, the title of Sūra xxvii. of the Ḳurʾān, the whole of which was revealed at Mecca. Nöldeke puts it among the Sūras of the second period. It contains 95 verses. Its title is taken from verse 18: “When the armies reached the valley of the Ants one of them said: ʿO ye ants, return to your homes lest Solomon and his armies crush you without noticing it’”. It contains one verse that was abrogated (verse 94 annulled by ix. 5). (Maurice Chemoul) Bibliography cf. al-nahl.