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Yazīd b. Abī Muslim

(282 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
(Dīnār), Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ, secretary and governor under the Umayyads. He was a mawlā , not by manumission (presumably by conversion), of T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], and foster-brother and secretary, but not mawlā, of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.] (thus al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī and al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ). He ran the dīwān al-rasāʾil for al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and took charge of the taxes of ʿĪrāḳ when the latter died in 95/714, but was dismissed and jailed on Sulaymān’s accession in 96/715. His cruelty was so notorious that ʿUmar II reputedly left him i…

ʿUt̲h̲māniyya

(3,011 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
, the adherents of a doctrinal stance which originated at the same time and over the same question as K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ism and S̲h̲īʿism, but which did not survive beyond the 4th/10th century. Its history can be divided into four stages: 1. Loyalism. The stance originated in response to the killing of ʿUt̲h̲mān [ q.v.]. Had the rebels done right? The ʿUt̲h̲māniyya were those who denied it. ʿUt̲h̲mān had in their view remained a legitimate ruler whose life it had been wrong to take. “By God, ʿUt̲h̲mān was killed unjustly ( maẓlūman )” (al-Ṭabarī, i, 3434; cf. 3243.9-12…

War

(2,717 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
A state of open, armed and often prolonged conflict between states, tribes or parties, frequently mentioned in the Qurʾān. It is usually referred to by derivatives of the third form of q-t-l, “fighting” (q.v.), sometimes with the qualification fī sabīl Allāh, “in the path of God” (see path or way ); but we also hear of ḥarb, “war,” both against God and the messenger (q.v.; e.g. q 5:33; 9:107; cf. 5:64) and by or for them ( q 2:279; 8:57; cf. 47:4). Derivatives of j-h-d are used for efforts which include fighting without being reducible to it (see jihād ). Wars mentioned Past wars are rarely ment…

Atheism (premodern)

(2,517 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Atheism is the lack of belief in, or outright denial of, the existence of God. There was no term for it in premodern Arabic; the nearest equivalent is ilḥād, literally “deviation,” best translated as “godlessness.” Like the atheos of the ancient world, the mulḥid was a godless person in the sense that his behaviour, beliefs, or pronouncements (meant seriously or otherwise) were deemed incompatible with proper belief in, and respect for, God, as understood in the relevant community, not necessarily in the sense that he denied God's existe…
Date: 2019-08-29

Barāhima

(1,561 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
The Barāhima appear in two quite different guises in Islamic literature before emerging in a recognisable form as the Brahmans of India. The first is that of the ascetic sages to whom Alexander had posed questions, a role they had acquired in antiquity and which developed especially in Persian poetry. The second is that of mouthpieces, in kalām debates about the necessity of prophets, for the view that prophethood was neither necessary nor real, since one could establish the existence of God and the difference between right and wrong on the basis of r…
Date: 2019-08-29

Anarchism

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Anarchism, the belief that human society can function without the state, is rarely found anywhere in premodern times, but it is attested in the Islamic world among third/ninth-century Muʿtazilīs and Khārijites. It left no enduring legacy. Among the Muʿtazilīs, the dispensability of a central government was upheld by al-Aṣamm (d. c.200/816), al-Naẓẓām (d. between 220/835 and 230/845), Hishām al-Fuwaṭī (d. c.218/832), and his pupil ʿAbbād b. Sulaymān (d. c.250/864), as well as by the ascetics (ṣūfiyyat al-muʿtazila). Among the Khārijites it was supported by the Najdiyya. …
Date: 2019-08-29

Yazīd b. Abī Muslim

(299 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
(Dīnār), Abū l-ʿAlāʾ, secrétaire et gouverneur sous les Umayyades. C’était un mawlā, non par affranchissement mais vraisemblablement par conversion, des T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], et frère de lait et secrétaire, mais non mawlā, d’al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.] (d’après al-Ḏj̲ahs̲h̲iyārī et al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ). Il dirigea le dīwān al-rasāʾil pour al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ et prit en charge les impôts de l’ʿIrāḳ quand celui-ci mourut en 95/714, mais il fut révoqué et incarcéré à l’accession de Sulaymān en 96/715. Sa cruauté était si notoire que ʿUmar II, à ce qu’il p…

ʿUt̲h̲māniyya

(3,165 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
, partisans d’une position doctrinale qui trouve son origine à la même époque et à propos de la même question que le Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲isme et le S̲h̲īʿisme, mais qui n’a pas survécu au delà du IVe/Xe siècle. Son histoire peut se diviser en quatre stades: 1. Loyalisme. Cette position est à l’origine une réponse au meurtre de ʿUt̲h̲mān [ q.v.]. Les rebelles ont-ils bien agi? La ʿUt̲h̲māniyya était formée de ceux qui pensaient que non. ʿUt̲h̲mān était resté, de leur point de vue, un souverain légitime à qui on avait eu tort d’ôter la vie. «Par Dieu, ʿUt̲h̲mān fut tué injustement ( maẓlūman )» (al-Ṭabarī, …

Dayṣanīs

(1,468 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
The Dayṣanīs were the followers of Bar Dayṣān (in Western sources Bardesanes, d. c.222 C.E.), an Edessene Christian who was deemed heretical within a century of his death. Muslim sources say very little about the Dayṣanīs as a Christian sect and rarely even know that they were Christians. They encountered them mainly as participants in disputations about kalām al-falsafa, natural science pursued in dialectical form, in which the focus was on cosmology as a rational edifice capable of standing alone, without scriptural support. “Dayṣanīs” were those who…
Date: 2019-08-29

Bābak

(1,466 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Bābak (d. 223/838) was the leader of a major Khurramī revolt in early ʿAbbāsid Iran. The son of an Aramean peddler from Iraq and an Azerbaijani village woman, he grew up as a Muslim under the name of al-Ḥasan; his two brothers also bore Muslim names. Initially he worked for Arab warlords in the Tabriz region in Azerbaijan, first as a cowherd, later as a groom, but eventually he found employment with Jāvīdhān, the leader of a native cult society, who converted him to Khurramism. Bābak eventually …
Date: 2019-08-29

Dahrīs

(4,194 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
Dahrīs were thinkers in the early Islamic world whose cosmology left little or no room for God. Usually translated ‘materialists” or “eternalists,” the term has also been used in a generic sense for anyone, such as a modern scientist, who deems the universe to be explicable without reference to divine intervention. 1. The early Dahrīs The Dahrīs are first mentioned in Iraq in the 120s/740s. By profession they seem mostly to have been doctors, astrologers, alchemists, and others interested in the workings of the natural world. In intellectual style they were mutakallims. They specialis…
Date: 2019-08-29

ʿArīf

(905 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
ʿArīf , a term that refers to certain military or civil officials, was used during the Umayyad period to designate a paymaster in the army (corresponding to the Byzantine optio), but seemingly also a collector of ṣadaqa from Arabian tribesmen (al-Iṣfahānī, al-Aghānī, Cairo 1927–, 11:248f.; cf. 3:62). At other times the term has designated variously a commander of a small military unit, a leader of the inquisition against zindīqs, an overseer of a particular section of the market (Wakīʿ, Akhbār al-quḍāʾ, ed. ʿAbdallāh al-Marāghī, Cairo 1947–50, 2:347), a leader of other arti…
Date: 2019-08-29