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 I Tačkacʿ Imastasiracʿ Grocʿ Kałeal Bankʿ

(423 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
‘Views from the writings of Islamic philosophers’ Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi Bluz Date: About 1260 Original Language: Armenian Description This is a comparatively short text of only about 5,000 words, a selection of ideas or bankʿ from Islamic philosophers, whose identity and ‘writings’ Yovhannēs never reveals; he simply refers to the ‘sages of aylazgik’ (‘other nations’, a term used for the Muslims), or just imastunkʿ (‘the sages’). Until recently it was regarded as an original work by the mature Yovhannēs, but see Dadoyan, I Ta čkacʿ Imastasiracʿ Grocʿ Kałeal Bankʿĕ ew Imastasiraka…

 Yarecʿan sut Margarēk

(427 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
‘There arose false prophets’ Mattʿēos Ĵułayecʿi Date: About 1400-10 Original Language: Armenian Description Yarecʿan sut Margarēk is a short sermon in classical Armenian mixed with vernacular phrases, idioms and terms (it is to be found in Kʿarozner, ‘Homilies’). It is a direct assault on the person and teachings of Muḥammad as a ‘false prophet’. Mattʿēos defines seven conditions for ‘true prophethood’: foreknowledge, altruism, signs, credibility, originality, moral teachings, and personal example. With direct references to the li…

 Mattʿēos Vardapeti vasn Harcʿmancʿ Anorinacʿ Zanazan Patasxanin zor Xndreal Barepaštn Abisołom Mec Tanutērn Širyanay

(778 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
‘Various responses to the questions of the infidels by Mattʿēos Vardapet requested by the great lord of Širyan the pious Abisołom’ Mattʿēos Ĵułayecʿi Date: About 1392 Original Language: Armenian Description Vasn Harcʿmancʿ Anorinacʿ Zanazan Patasxanin is a relatively short text of around 3,000 words. Mattʿēos takes up seven questions raised by the ‘infidels’, or Muslims, and answers each one systematically. As the title says, he wrote the work in response to a request by the tanutēr (lord, a member of the lesser aristocracy that appeared after the 10th century) of the village of Š…

Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi Bluz

(983 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Biography Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi was born around 1230 in Erznka (Erzinjān, Erez, Eriza, Erizawan, Arznka), the capital of the province of Ekełeacʿ, on the upper reaches of the western Euphrates. He was nicknamed Bluz (or Čluz in the dialect of Erznka) because of his small stature. He claimed to be related to the nobility of the province. In his late twenties and despite his father’s objections, he entered the great Monastery of St Minas on Sepuh Leṙ (Sepuh Mountain) near the city. In 1268, in his late thirties, he was made vardapet. Yovhannēs began his literary career in early 1270s. Ear…

Mattʿēos Ĵułayecʿi

(435 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Biography Mattʿēos Ĵułayecʿi, one of the most prolific Armenian commentators, is often referred to as a disciple of Gregory of Taʿtew (q.v.). He is best known for his radical opposition to Catholic Unitarians and Muslims. Mattʿēos was a native of Julfa (or Ĵuła) situated on one of the main trade routes in the south-west of the present Republic of Armenia on the River Araxes. He studied at the Monastery of Aprakuni, and traveled extensively judging from his knowledge of the cultures, dialects, cus…

 Sahman ew Kanonkʿ Miabanutʿean Ełbarcʿ; Krkin Kanonkʿ ew Xratkʿ Tłayahasak Mankancʿ Ašxarhakanacʿ

(825 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
‘Definitions and canons for the coalition of brothers’; ‘Further canons and advice for secular youth’'Constitution for the Brotherhoods of Erznka’ Yovhannēs Erznkacʿi Bluz Date: 1280 Original Language: Armenian Description Both written in 1280, these two short texts, totaling about 6,000 words, are commonly known as the Constitution for the brotherhoods of Erznka. On the title page Yovhannēs states that they were written at the request of the old priest Grigor Sanahnecʿi to ‘reform and guide’ the manuks, the unruly groups of youth of the city. Closely adopting his basic…

 Ays ē gir orinats‘ hagarats‘wots‘ kam ismaēlats‘wots‘ or koch‘i ghuran aysink‘n havak‘umn patowiranats

(5,338 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
‘This is the book of laws of the Hagarians or the Ishmaelites, called Ghuran, meaning collection of precepts’ Step‘anos Lehats‘i Date: Between 1670 and 1680 Original Language: Classical Armenian mixed with middle Armenian Description A rapid comparison of Robert of Ketton’s Latin version of the Qur’an, made in Toledo in 1143, with Lehats‘i’s version immediately shows that the latter is a literal translation of the former. In form, sequence and relative length of the 124 suras (instead of the 114 in the Arabic Qur’an) they are id…

Step‘anos Lehats‘i

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Date of Birth: First decade of the 17th century Place of Birth: Ilova (Lvov, Poland) Date of Death: 1689 Place of Death: Ējmiatsin, Armenia Biography The life of Step‘anos Lehats‘i, the first translator of the Qur’an from the first Latin version into Armenian, spanned most of the 17th century, one of the most turbulent periods of Armenian history. This time also marked the awakening of national consciousness and the beginning of modern Armenian history. Perpetual wars between the Sunnī Ottoman Turks and the sub-Shīʿī Qizilbashi Safavids deva…

 Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner - Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Adamits‘ minch‘ew 1776

(6,728 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner‘Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators - Chronicle from Adam to 1776’, ‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’ Samuēl Anets‘i and his continuators Date: Initial Chronicle by Samuēl Anets‘i ended in 1163; continued to 1776 Original Language: Armenian DescriptionThe  Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner (‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’) is one of the most copied texts in medieval and early modern Armenian literature. The initial book by Samuēl Anets‘i, a native o…

Samuēl Anets‘i and his continuators

(942 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Date of Birth: Samuēl Anets‘i: around 1110; Continuators: mid-12th - early 18th centuries Place of Birth: Samuēl Anets‘i: Ani, Armenia; Continuators: various locations Date of Death: Samuēl Anets‘i: early 1180s; Continuators: late 12th - late 18th centuries Place of Death: Samuēl Anets‘i: Ani, Armenia; Continuators: various locations BiographyThe  Zhamanakagrut‘iwn Samuēl Anets‘i ew sharunakoghner (‘Chronicle of Samuēl Anets‘i and continuators’) was started by Samuēl Anets‘i. Also known as Samuēl Erēts‘, he was a married priest and native of Ani who lived in the 12th centur…


(366 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
, al-Amīr Abu ’l-Fatḥ Nāṣir (or Amīr, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, Nud̲j̲ūm , v, Cairo 1913-17, 240) al-D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Sayf al-Islām S̲h̲araf al-Islām, al-Rūmī al-Armanī al-Ḥāfiẓī (d. 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 526/1132), the fourth of six Muslim Armenian viziers of the Fāṭimids (over the period 1074-1163). A former mamlūk of al-Afḍal, in 516/1122-3, Yānis was appointed chief of the ṣibyān and head of the treasury by al-Āmir’s vizier Maʾmūn al-Baṭāʾiḥī (al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. al-Malīgī, iv, 268). Rising to the posts of chamberlain and commander-in-chie…

Badr al-Jamālī

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Abū l-Najm Badr b. ʿAbdallāh al-Jamālī al-Mustanṣirī, or Amīr al-Juyūsh, (d. 487/1094) served as wazīr to the Fāṭimid caliph al-Mustanṣir (r. 427–87/1036–94) from 467/1074 to his death in his late eighties. He was the first of seven Fāṭimid Armenian wazīrs (all but one of whom were Muslims), whose terms, totalling fifty-eight years, constituted the highlights of the “Armenian Period” (467–558/1074–1162–3) (Dadoyan, 1–16). During the 450/1060s the Fāṭimid caliphate was brought to the verge of collapse because of conflicts between Turkic, Berber, and Sudanes…
Date: 2020-09-16


(733 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
Bahrām al-Armanī (d. 534/1140), the Christian wazīr of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥāfiẓ (r. 525–44/1131–49) from 529/1135 to 531/1137, was one of the seven Armenian wazīrs—the other six of whom were Muslims—in Fāṭimid Egypt, where he arrived circa 1090 at the head of a large Armenian force (Dadoyan, 81–105). He was Prince Vahram from the Pahlawuni House in Tall Bāshir (northeast of Aleppo in present Turkey) (Alishan, Abu Sahl, 44). He is known as ‘seigneur des arméniens’ in Crusader sources (Grousset, 1:161) and in Arab histories as ‘muqaddam al-arman fi al-Shām’ (Canard, Un vizier, 93). He…
Date: 2020-09-16


(369 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
, al-Amīr Abū l-Fatḥ, Nāṣir (ou Amīr, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, Nud̲j̲ūm, V, Caire 1913-17, 240) al-Ḏj̲uyūs̲h̲, Sayf al-Islām, S̲h̲araf al-Islām, al-Rūmī al-Armanī al-Ḥāfizī (m. 16 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 526/1132), le quatrième des six vizirs arméniens des Fāṭimides (pour la période 1074-1163). Précédemment mamlūk d’al-Afḍal, en 516/1122-3 Yānis fut nommé chef des ṣibyān (pages de la garde califale) et mis à la tête du Trésor par Maʾmūn al-Baṭāʾiḥī, le vizir d’al-Āmir (al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, éd. Al-Malīgī, IV, 268). Ayant atteint le rang de chambellan et de commandant en che…