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Day and Night

(881 words)

Author(s): Dallal, A.
Alternation between light (q.v.) and darkness (q.v.) due to the rotation of the earth upon its axis. The numerous references in the Qurʾān to day and night (al- nahār wa-l-layl) fall under four general themes. First, the phenomenon of day and night itself, or aspects of it, is frequently presented as a sign ( āya, see signs ), lesson ( ʿibra) or expression of God's mercy (q.v.) for the wise to note and remember. The other related aspects of the phenomenon of day and night include their alteration ( ikhtilāf), succession, covering up one by the other and stripping off one from the other (yūliju, ya…

Calendar

(884 words)

Author(s): Dallal, A.
System of fixing the divisions of time (q.v.), adapted to the purposes of communal life. References in the Qurʾān related to calendar include the terms waqt/ mīqāt which mean, among other things, fixed or appointed time (e.g. q 2:189; 4:103; 7:143; 44:40; 78:17); the computation of years and numbers ( li-taʿlamū ʿadad al-sinīn wa-l-ḥisāb, q 10:5; 17:12; see numbers and enumeration ); and the division of the year into twelve months (q.v.): “The number of months with God is twelve in accordance with God's decree on the day he created the heavens and the earth; of which four are holy months” ( q 9:…