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Doʾāb

(176 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, (Pers.) ‘two-waters’, corresponding to the Greek μεσοποταμία, is in the Indo-Pākistān subcontinent generally applied to the land lying between two confluent rivers, and more particularly to the fertile plain between the D̲j̲amnā and the Ganges in Uttar Prades̲h̲. The long tongues of land between the five rivers of the Pand̲j̲āb are also known as doʾābs . Between the Satlad̲j̲ and the ¶ Beʾās lies the Bist doʾāb ; between the Beʾās and the Rāwī, the Bārī doʾāb; between the Rawī and the Čenāb, the Rečnā doʾāb; between the Čenāb and the D̲j̲helam, the Čad̲j̲ or D̲j̲eč doʾāb; and between the …

Amīr K̲h̲ān

(279 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, 1768-1834, the famous Paṭhān predatory chief and associate of Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar, was born at Sambhal in the Murādābād district of Rohilkhand. As a young man he and his adherents were employed by various zamindārs and Marāṭha officials as sihbandi troops for the collection of the revenues. He rapidly developed into a leader of banditti and as such was successively employed by the rulers of Bhopāl, Indore and Ḏj̲aypūr. In 1798 he received the title of nawāb from Ḏj̲aswant Rāo Holkar. The following year he plundered Saugor and the surrounding coun…

Abū Ṭālib K̲hān

(240 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(1752-1806), the son of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad Beg, of Turkish descent, was born at Lucknow. His early years were spent in Murs̲h̲idābād at the court of Muẓaffar Ḏj̲ang. With the accession of Āṣaf al-Dawla (1775) he returned to Oudh and was appointed ʿamaldār of Itāwah and other districts. He also served as a revenue official under Colonel Hannay who farmed the country of Sarwār. He was later employed by Nathaniel Middleton, the English Resident, and was connected with Richard Johnson in the management of the confiscated d̲j̲āgīrs of the Begams of Oudh. He re…

Mullagorī

(238 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a tribe on the north-west frontier of Pakistan. They inhabit the hilly country around Tārtāra and Kambela to the north of the K̲h̲yber Pass, in the southern part of the Mohmand [ q.v.] territory. Their territories are bounded on the north by the Kābul river; on the west by the S̲h̲ilmānī country; on the south by the settlements of the Kuki K̲h̲ēl Afrīdīs; and on the east by the Pes̲h̲āwar district. The tribe is divided into three clans: the Aḥmad K̲h̲ēl, Ismāʿīl, and the Dawlat K̲h̲ēl. Like the Ṣāfīs and the S̲h̲ilmā…

Pargana

(691 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a Hindi word, ultimately from a Sanskrit root “to compute, reckon up”, a term in Indo-Muslim administrative usage denoting an aggregate of villages, a subdivision of a district or sarkār [see mug̲h̲als. 3. Administrative and social organisation]. In later Anglo-Indian usage, the term was often rendered as pergunnah , see Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 698-9. The first reference to this term in the chronicles of the Sultanate of Dihlī appears to be in the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Fīrūz S̲h̲āhī of S̲h̲ams-i Sirād̲j̲ ʿAfīf ( Bibliotheca Ind…

D̲jō̲ōd̲h̲pur

(326 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
or Mārwāŕ was the largest of the former Indian States in the Rajputana Agency with an area of 36,120 sq.m. and a population of 2,555,904 (1941 Census). There appears to be no evidence to support the Rād̲j̲pūt legend that the state of D̲j̲ōdhpur was founded by the Rād̲j̲pūts of Kanawd̲j̲ after their defeat by Muḥammad of G̲h̲ūr in 590/1194. Siyāhd̲j̲ī, the founder of the Rāthōr dynasty of D̲j̲ōdhpur, was probably descended from Rāthōr rād̲j̲ās whose inscriptions are found in …

Bid̲j̲nawr

(168 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(bijnor), a town and district in the Rohilk̲h̲and division of the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. The district has an area of 1,867 square miles with a population of 984,196, of which 36% are Muslims. The town has a population of 30,646 (1951 Census). Little is known of the district’s early history. In 1399 it was ravaged by Tīmūr. Under Akbar it formed part of the sarkār of Sambhal in the sūba of Dihlī. During the decline of Mug̲h̲al power it was overrun by Rohillas under ʿAlī Muḥammad. It contains the town of Nad̲j̲ibābād founded about 1750 by Nad̲j̲ib al-Dawla who became wāzīr

Afrīdī

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the name of a large and powerful Paṭhān tribe, with an estimated fighting strength of 50,000, on the northwest frontier of Pākistān. The territories inhabited by the Afrīdīs stretch from the eastern spurs of the Safīd Kūh through the northern half of Tirāh and the Khyber (Ḵh̲aybar) [ q.v.] pass to the west and south of the Pes̲h̲āwar district. On the east they are bounded by the settled districts of Pākistān; on the north by the territories of the Mohmunds; on the west by the S̲h̲inwārīs; and on the south by the Ōrakzays and Bangas̲h̲ tribes…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān K̲h̲ān

(915 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
(c. 1844-1901), Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the son of Afḍal Ḵh̲ān, the eldest surviving son of Dōst Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, the founder of the Barakzay dynasty in Afg̲h̲ānistān. In 1853 he proceeded to Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān where his father was serving as governor of Balk̲h̲. Despite his youth he took part in a series of operations which extended Dōst Muḥammad’s power over Katag̲h̲ān, Badak̲h̲s̲h̲ān, and Derwāz. Before his death in 1863 Dōst Muḥammad had nominated a younger son, S̲h̲īr ʿAlī, as his success…

Pālānpur

(413 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a former, Muslim-ruled princely state of India, now in Gujarat State of the Indian Union but in British Indian times included in the Western India States Agency. The territory incorporated in this agency included the area formerly known as Kāthiāwār together with the Cutch and Pālanpūr agencies. Its creation in October 1924 marked the end of the political control of the Government of Bombay and the beginning of direct relations with the Government of India. The old Pālanpūr Agency with its headquarters at the town of Pālanpūr was a group of states in Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.] lying between 23° …

Awrangābād Sayyid

(31 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a small town in the Bulands̲h̲ahr district of Uttar Pradesh, founded in 1704 by Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, a descendant of Sayyid Ḏj̲alāl al-Ḥusayn of Buk̲h̲ārā. (C. Collin-Davies)

Bād̲j̲awr

(239 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, tract of mountainous country in the Dīr, Swāt, and Čitrāl agency of the Pes̲h̲āwar division, West Pākistān. It is bounded on the north by Dīr; on the east by Dīr and Swāt; on the southeast and south by the Utmān Ḵh̲ēl and Mamund territories; and on the west by Afg̲h̲ānistān. It has an area of about 5,000 square miles and is intersected by five valleys—the Čahārmung, Bābūkara, Watalai, Rūd, and Sūr Kamar. In the absence of any census the population has been estimated at 100,000. Bād̲j̲awr is th…

Awrangābād

(237 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town and district in the state of Bombay having in 1951 a population of 1,179,404. During the reign of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī the Hindu rulers of this part of the Deccan were forced to pay tribute to the Muslim invaders. In 1347 it was incorporated in the Bahmanī kingdom and with the disintegration of that kingdom became part of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī sultanate of Aḥmadnagar. Under Malik ʿAmbar, an able Abyssinian minister, Aḥmadnagar offered a stubborn resistance to the Mug̲h̲al invaders, but, …

Mastūd̲j̲

(350 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley formerly included in the Dīr, Swat and Citrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of British India and now in Pakistan. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Syāmāka (Sylvain Lévi, in JA, ser. 11, vol. v, 76; and H. Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan , 1930, 29 ff.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-k’ung in the 8th century A.D. ( Ancient Khotan , Oxford 1907, i, 15-16, Serindia

Rādhanpūr

(357 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a former princely state, headed by a Nawwāb [ q.v.], of British India, at that time in the Pālānpūr [ q.v.] Agency of Bombay Province, now in the Gujarat State of the Indian Union. It is also the name of its capital (lat. 23° 49′ N., long. 7° 39′ E.), lying 90 km/56 miles to the southwest of Pālānpūr and to the east of the Rann of Cutch. The rulers of Rādhanpūr traced their descent from a Muslim adventurer who came to India from Isfahan about the middle of the 11th/17th century. His descendants became fawd̲j̲dārs and farmers of revenue in the Mug̲h̲al province of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.]. Early in the 12t…

Bāra Sayyids

(870 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, the descendants of Sayyid Abu ’l-Faraḥ of Wāsiṭ near Bag̲h̲dād, who with his twelve sons emigrated to India in the 7th/13th century and settled in four villages near Patiāla in the sarkār of Sirhand in the sūba of Dihlī. The four main branches of the farnily were named after these four villages. Sayyid Dāʾūd settled in Tihanpūr; Sayyid Abu ’l-Faḍl in Čhatbanūr or Čhatrauri; Sayyid Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil in Kūndlī; and Sayyid Naẓm al-Dīn Ḥusayn in Jagner or Jhajari. From this area they later migrated into the Muẓaffarnagar district of the Ganges-Jumna doāb . The Kundlīwāl…

Rād̲j̲pūts

(1,676 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, inhabitants of India, who claim to be the modern representatives of the Ks̲h̲atriyas of ancient tradition. (From the Sanskrit rād̲j̲aputra “a king’s son”. For the connection between Rād̲j̲anya and Ks̲h̲atriya see Macdonell and Keith, Vedic index, i, s.v. Kṣatriya) The term Rād̲j̲pūt has no racial significance. It simply denotes a tribe, clan, or warlike class, the members of which claim aristocratic rank, a claim generally reinforced by Brahman recognition. The origin of the Rād̲j̲pūts is a problem which bristles with difficulties. The theory which was held earl…

Akbar

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, abu ’l-fatḥ ḏj̲alāl al-dīn muḥammad (15 Oct. 1542-16 Oct. 1605), the greatest of the Mug̲h̲al emperors of India, was born at Umarkot in Sind while his father Humāyūn, who had been ousted by the Afg̲h̲ān usurper S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr, was escaping to Persia. A grandson of Bābur, he was both a Tīmūrid Turk and a Čag̲h̲atāy Mongol. His mother, Ḥamīda Bānū, was a Persian. After thirteen years of exile Humāyūn, because of the decline of Sūr power, decided to attempt the reconquest of H…

Buxar

(164 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a town on the south bank of the Ganges in the S̲h̲āhābād district of the Patna division of the Indian State of Bihār. Population: 18,087. (1951 Census). It seems to have been a place of great sanctity in ancient times and was originally called Vedagarbha ‘the womb of the Vedas’. Local tradition derives the name of the town from a tank originally called aghsar , or effacer of sins, which was later changed to baghsar , the tiger tank. It was at Buxar, on 23 October 1764, that the forces of Mīr Ḳāsim, ex-nawāb of Bengal, and S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ al-Dawla, na…

Mastūd̲j̲

(282 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, a village, fort, and district in the upper Yārkhūn valley at present included in the Dīr, Swāt and Čitrāl Political Agency of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It apparently formed part of the ancient territory of Śyāmāka (M. Sylvain Levi, in J. A., xi., vol. v., p. 76; and Lüders, Weitere Beiträge zur Geschichte und Geographie von Ostturkestan, 1930, p. 29 sqq.). Stein identifies Mastūd̲j̲ with the territory of Čü-wei or S̲h̲ang-mi which was visited ¶ by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-K’ung in the viiith century a. d. ( Ancient khotan, i., foot note on p. 15—16; Serindia, i. 18). An insc…
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