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Mustas̲h̲ār

(353 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), councillor, Turkish pronunciation müstes̲h̲ār, meaning “general secretary to a ministry” or “under-secretary of state”. The word which means literally “one who is consulted” comes from the same root as mus̲h̲īr [q. v.] which properly means “he who gives advice”. Sāmī Bey regards the word müstes̲h̲ār as a synonym of the old Turkish inal. — The office was called müstes̲h̲ārī or more simply müstes̲h̲ārli̊k. Like the title müs̲h̲īr, that of müstes̲h̲ār was created by Maḥmūd II. There were at first two müstes̲h̲ār in the grand-vizierate, one for foreign and the other for ho…

Tug̲h̲ra

(4,598 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(Ottoman and Sald̲j̲uḳ Turkish), cipher or calligraphic emblem of the Og̲h̲uz, later Sald̲j̲uḳ and then Ottoman ruler, which in course of time became the coat of arms or escutcheon of the state, and was placed by the ruler not only on rescripts and firmans but on title-deeds of property, coins, official monuments, ships-of-war and in more modern times on documents of identification, passports, postage-stamps, sheets of stamped paper, goldsmith’s marks etc. Lexicology. The word tug̲h̲ra was synonymous with the Persian nis̲h̲ān, nis̲h̲āne or nīs̲h̲ān (whence the Arabic plural nayās̲h…

Anḳara

(2,262 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(t.), Greek ῎Αγκυρα (῎Αγγυρα), Hittite Ankuwa, modern Turkish orthography (intended to be used internationally): Ankara, the name of the capital of the Turkish republic, the town known in the west as Angora [q. v.]. The older Turkish name of Engüri, Engürü or Engüriye (cf. the Armenian Angürya) has only survived in modern times for the river Engürü su(yu) or locally Engürü ozü, a right bank tributary of the Sakarya (the dialect form öz “watercourse” is to be connected with the ögüz and not the öküz of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar). The form Engüriye still survives on the coins of Murād II (142…

Yi̊ldi̊z Kōs̲h̲kü

(1,695 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(t.), Yildiz Kiosk, properly the “Kiosk of the Star” or more popularly in Turkish usage, Yi̊ldi̊z Sarāyi̊ “Palace of the Star”, or simply Yi̊ldi̊z, the imperial residence consisting of a vast and somewhat chaotic agglomeration of pavilions and gardens situated in the northeast of Istanbul (Constantinople) on the heights which command Bes̲h̲iktas̲h̲ (Beşiktaş) and Ortaköy. The surrounding wall is ad̲j̲oined in the east by the Ortaköy quarters, in the south by the Čerag̲h̲an (Çeragan) quarter and in the west by the slopes known as Serend̲j̲e Bey yokus̲h̲u. Yildiz maybe reached from…

Redīf

(1,931 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(Ar. radīf), “what follows immediately after a person or thing (Fagnan, Additions’); one mounted on a croup, pillion-rider”; cf. for use in the figurative sense in a composite epithet in Turkish (Persian): ordu-i ẓafer-redīf: “the victorious army (one which has victory on its croup)” ( Tārīk̲h̲-i Ḏj̲ewdet, 1270 a. h., i. 22). The synonyms terdīf and, more rarely, irdāf, “the act of causing to follow or join, to make to accompany”, are also sometimes used in Turkish as well as the words terdīf en and irdāfen . As a technical term radīf, pronounced redīf, has been used: 1. in Persian and …

S̲h̲aik̲h̲zāde

(2,665 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
, pronounced S̲h̲eik̲h̲zāde, a compound Persian word signifying “son (or descendant) of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲” [q. v.], synonymous with the Turkish expression S̲h̲eik̲h̲-og̲h̲lu. The word s̲h̲eik̲h̲, pronounced in vulgar Turkish, S̲h̲ēk̲h̲, means according to Turkish usage “preacher in a large mosque; the head of a religious brotherhood”. This expression must not be confused with s̲h̲ēhzāde (vulgar secondary form for s̲h̲āhzāde) “prince imperial”. S̲h̲eik̲h̲zāde is a patronym of the same kind as Imāmzāde or Imām-og̲h̲lu, Müʾed̲h̲d̲h̲inzāde or Meʾzin-og̲h̲lu, N.-Pas̲h̲a-zāde, …

Pas̲h̲a

(2,748 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(T., from the Pers. pādis̲h̲āh, probably influenced by Turkish basḳaḳ), the highest official title of honour ( ʿunwān or laḳab) in use in Turkey until quite recently and still surviving in certain Muslim countries originally parts of the Turkish empire (Egypt, ʿIrāḳ, Syria). It was always accompanied by the proper name like the titles of nobility in Europe but with this difference from the latter, that it was placed after the name (like the less important titles of bey and efendi). In addition, being neither hereditary nor giving any rank to wives, nor attached to territori…

Rikābdār

(1,945 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
or Rikībdār, a Persian derivative from the preceding (Turkish pronunciation rikiābdār, rekiabdar, rekeptar and rikiptar), properly “one put in charge of the stirrup, one who holds the stirrup, when his master mounts” (cf. French estafier, Ital. staffiere, Russ. striemiennoy, English groom of stirrup, words formed from staffa, striemia, stirrup = French estrieu, mod. étrier). In fact, remembering that the word rikāb has been given or has assumed a wider meaning [see the article], ¶ rikābdār meant “a kind of squire, groom or riding attendant who had charge of the care a…

Ṣadr Aʿẓam

(553 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(for ṣadr-i-aʿẓam), strictly “the greatest of the high dignitaries”, a title which from the time of Sulaimān the Magnificent has been borne by the first minister or “grand ¶ vizier” of the Ottoman empire, also called ṣadr-i-ʿālī, ṣāḥib-i-dewlet, destūr-i-ekrem, ṣadāret-penāh, āṣaf-i-aʿẓam (from the name of the legendary minister of Solomon), etc. (cf. below). Earlier he was called weilr (see wazīr), then wezīr-i-ewwet (aʿẓam, ekber). Afterthe suppression of the ‘viziers of the dome” ( ḳubbe wezīrleri) under Aḥmad III, the Ṣadr aʿẓam were appointed by no fixed rule, at the S…

Rikābdār

(2,015 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
or Rikībdār , a Persian derivative from the preceding, properly “one put in charge of the stirrup, one who holds the stirrup, when his master mounts” (cf. French estafier , Ital. staffiere , Russ. stremennoy , English groom of stirrup, words formed from staff a, stremy̲a̲ , stirrup = French estrieu , mod. étrier ). In fact, remembering that the word rikāb has been given or has assumed a wider meaning [see rikāb ], rikābdār meant “a kind of squire, groom or riding attendant who had charge of the care and maintenance of harness and saddlery and of …

Bāb-i ʿĀlī

(516 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(modern orthography Babi āli ), less frequently Bāb-i āṣafī , the (Ottoman) Sublime Porte, former ministerial department of the Grand Vizier, originally called Pas̲h̲a (or Vezīr ) Ḳapusu . The custom of calling the palace, court or government of a ruler “porte” or “doorstep” was very prevalent in ancient times (Iran of the Sāsānids, Egypt of the Pharaohs, Israel, Arabs, Japan). The term returned to Iṣfahān in the more Turkish form of ʿĀlī Ḳapu (Chardin). The “Porte”, which at the same time was the ¶ personal dwelling of the Grand Vizier and at the outset tended to be rather mob…

Rikāb

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a., “stirrup”), in Persian and Turkish usage at Muslim courts, “the sovereign himself or his presence, the foot of the throne” (metonymy, like those of k̲h̲idmet in Sald̲j̲ūḳ usage; hazret or ḥaḍret; k̲h̲āk-i pay; etc.). ¶ The figurative expression rikāb-i humāyūn (Turk. pronunciation: rik i āb-i̊ hümāyūn ), or (more rarely) rikāb-i s̲h̲āhāne or simply rikāb is already found in Persian of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid period applied to the sultan himself or his entourage in the field or travelling. For example one said that so-and-so was “in the service of the imperial stirrup” (Ibn Bībī, in Houtsma, R…

Mustas̲h̲ār

(357 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), counsellor, used in Ottoman Turkish as müstes̲h̲ār , meaning “general secretary to a ministry” or “under-secretary of state”. The word, which means literally “one who is ¶ consulted”, comes from the same root as müs̲h̲īr [ q.v.], which properly means “he who gives advice”. Sāmī Bey regards the word müstes̲h̲ār as a synonym of the old Turkish inal . The office was called müstes̲h̲ārī or more simply müstes̲h̲arli̊ḳ . Like the title müs̲h̲īr, that of müstes̲h̲ār was created by Maḥmūd II. There were at first two müstes̲h̲ārs in the grand-vizierate, one for foreign and the other …

Riyāla

(2,354 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
, riyāle or riyāla bey , abbreviation of riyala-yi hümāyūn ḳapudani̊ “captain of the imperial [galley-] royal”, from the Italian riyale (secondary form from reale , abbreviated from galea reale, “the royal galley”), a general officer of the Ottoman navy who commanded the galley of the same name, later “rear-admiral”. There was also a popular pronunciation ¶ i̊ryāla with the prosthetic i frequent in Turkish in loan-words with an initial r (cf. Hindoglou, 113 under “contre-amiral” and 457 under “réale”; the form iryāla is found as early as Ewliyā Čelebi, v…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II

(2,338 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
( Ghāzī ) ( Abdülhamid ), 36th Ottoman sultan, fifth child of thirty of ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd (Abdülmecid) [ q.v.], born Wednesday, 21 September 1842. He is traditionally represented as a reserved child, easily offended, and, in spite of his keen intelligence, not given to study. It is said that, after a stormy youth, he led a thrifty family life, which earned him the undeserved nickname ‘Pinti Ḥamīd’, Ḥamīd the Skinflint, taken from a comedy by Kaṣṣab. He early showed a great liking for the company of devout persons (Pertewniyāl, a distortion of Pertew-nihāl, wālde sulṭān

Mus̲h̲īr

(1,251 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), lit. “one who points out, advises”, hence “counsellor, adviser” in administrative usage, in recent times also acquiring in military usage the connotation of “field-marshal” in both the Arab and Turkish worlds. According to some authorities, mus̲h̲īr was at first (before the ʿAbbāsids) the title of the ministers (later wazīr [ q.v.]) or secretaries of state ( kātib ). So at least we are told by Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, Fak̲h̲rī , ed. Derenbourg, 206, tr. Amar, 244, tr. Whitting, 146. K̲h̲alīl al-Ẓāhirī, Zubda , ed. Ravaisse, 106, 114, says that “formerly” an…

Rikāb

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a., prononciation turque: rikiab et rekiap) étrier, dans l’usage persan et turc des cours musulmanes: «le souverain lui-même ou sa présence, pied du trône» (métonymie dans le genre de celles de k̲h̲idmet de l’usage sald̲j̲ūḳide, hazret ou ḥaḍret, k̲h̲āk-i pay etc.). L’expression figurée rikāb-i humāyūn (pron. turque: rikiāb-ī hümāyūn), ou (plus rarement) rikāb-i s̲h̲āhāne ou simplement rikāb se rencontre déjà dans l’usage persan des Sald̲j̲ūḳides pour désigner le sultan lui-même ou son entourage, à la guerre ou en voyage. On disait, par ex., qu’un t…

ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II

(2,233 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(Ghāzī) (orth. turque: Abdūlhamid), 36e sultan ottoman, cinquième enfant sur 30 de ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd (Abdülmecid) [ q.v.], né le mercredi 21 septembre 1842. La tradition le présente comme un enfant renfermé, ombrageux, et malgré sa vive intelligence, peu porté à l’étude. Après une jeunesse orageuse, diton, il mena une vie de famille économe qui lui valut dès cette époque le sobriquet immérité de Pinti Ḥamid «Ḥ. le grigou», emprunté à une comédie de Kassap. Il marqua de bonne heure un vif goût pour la compagnie d…

Bāb-i ʿĀlī

(434 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(orthographe moderne Babi̊ âli), plus rarement Bāb-i āsafī, la Sublime Porte (Ottomane), ancien département ministériel du grand-vizir, appelé à l’origine Pas̲h̲a (ou Vezīr) Ḳapusu. L’usage de nommer «porte» ou «seuil» le palais, la cour ou le gouvernement d’un souverain était anciennement très répandu (Iran sāsānide, Égypte des Pharaons, Israël, Arabes, Japon). Le terme est retourné à Ispahan sous la forme plus turque de ʿĀli Ḳapu (Chardin). En même temps demeure personnelle du grand-vizir, la «Porte», d’abord quelque peu errante, perdit peu à peu son caractè…

Mus̲h̲īr

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(a.), participe actif de la IVe forme du radical s̲h̲.w.r signifiant littéralement «celui qui montre, qui conseille», de là «conseiller» dans l’usage administratif; mais ce terme a pris à une date récente, dans l’usage militaire, le sens de «maréchal» tant en turc qu’en arabe. D’après certaines autorités, mus̲h̲īr aurait été d’abord (avant les ʿAbbāsides) le titre même des ministres (plus tard wazīr [ q v.]) ou secrétaires d’État ( kātib). C’est du moins ce qu’on lit dans Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳāʾ ( Fak̲h̲rī, éd. Derenbourg, 206, trad. Amar, 244, trad. Whitting, 146). Mais Ḵh̲alīl al-Ẓāhirī ( Zubd…
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