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Law of Limitation

(1,100 words)

Author(s): Dieter Gunkel
Abstract The ‘Law of Limitation’ refers to a phonological process that is sensitive to the weight of the word-final syllable and limits how far from the end of a word an accent may be located. In doing so, it determines the phonologically accentable domain of the word. The Law of Limitation arose via a Proto-Greek or Common Greek change and is a distinctive feature of the language. The ‘Law of Limitation’ refers to a phonological process that limits how far from the end of a word an accent may be located: if the word-final syllable is light (Syllable Weight), t…
Date: 2013-11-01

Wheeler’s Law

(875 words)

Author(s): Dieter Gunkel
Abstract ‘Wheeler’s Law’ (also known as ‘dactylic retraction’) refers to an accent retraction process reconstructed for Common Greek by which oxytone words became paroxytone if they ended in a heavy-light-light syllable sequence, e.g. * poikilós > poikílos ‘multi-colored’. ‘Wheeler’s Law’ refers to a phonologically conditioned accent retraction process reconstructed for an early pandialectal stage of Greek by which oxytone words became paroxytone if they ended in a heavy-light-light syllable sequence (‘HLL’), e.g. * poikilós > poikílos ‘multi-colored’ (HLL), * dedegmenós > d…
Date: 2013-11-01

Accentuation

(3,809 words)

Author(s): Dieter Gunkel
Abstract The accent marks in modern editions of Ancient Greek texts primarily reflect the accentual system of an educated register of the Koine of the early 2nd c. BCE. In this system, phonological, morphological, and lexical factors conspire to associate a pitch accent with one syllable of each lexical word. The phonology of the language permits limited contrasts in accentual position ( lithobólos vs. lithóbolos) and type ( isthmoí vs. isthmoî); in the latter case, the syllable marked with an acute accent hosts a High tone, and that marked with a circumflex hosts…
Date: 2013-11-01

Sotera Rule

(589 words)

Author(s): Dieter Gunkel
Abstract The Sotera Rule (‘ sōtêra rule’, also known as the ‘ hêma rule’ and the ‘final trochee rule’) governs the distribution of acute and circumflex on accented penultimate syllables containing a long vowel or diphthong in Attic, Ionic, and the Koine. Penultimate and final syllables containing a long vowel or diphthong (VV-syllables) may host either an acute or circumflex accent (Accentuation). In accented final VV-syllables, the distribution of acute and circumflex is essentially morphological: in nominative and accusative forms, th…
Date: 2013-11-01