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Nicht-Kirche-Bewegung

(392 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[English Version] (Mukyōkai; japanisch: mu, »nicht« und Kyōkai, »Kirche«). Die N. wurde von K. Uchimura gegründet. Seine ernsthafte Suche danach, als Japaner an Christus zu glauben, führte zum Konflikt mit amer. Missionaren und etablierten Kirchen. Seit 1900 veröff. er die Monatszeitschrift »Bibelstudium« und begann mit Bibelstudienkreisen am Sonntag, um Evangelisation und Gemeinschaft mit Gleichgesinnten zu fördern. Diese Gruppen bez. er als »Nicht-Kirche«. Aus seiner Sicht existierte eine scha…

Uemura

(351 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[English Version] Uemura, Masahisa (15.1.1858 Tokyo – 8.1.1925 ebd.). U. studierte westlich geprägte Wiss. bei Missionaren in Yokohama. Die Persönlichkeiten und Lehren seiner Dozenten beeindruckten ihn derart, daß er sich 1873 taufen ließ. Er studierte an einer theol. Schule, wurde 1880 ordiniert und arbeitete bis zu seinem Tod als Pfarrer an der Fujimicho-Kirche in Tokyo. Er gehörte der Nippon Kirisuto Kyokai (»Kirche Christi in Japan«) an, die auf der ref.-presbyterianischen Tradition (Presbyteri…

Uchimura

(391 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[English Version] Uchimura, Kanzō (23.3.1861 Tokyo – 28.3.1930 ebd.). Als Sohn einer Samurai-Familie wuchs U. mit einer konfuzianischen (Konfuzianismus) ethischen Orientierung und einem Verantwortungsbewußtsein für sein Land auf. 1877 trat er in die Sapporo Landwirtschaftsschule ein und wurde aufgrund des Einflusses christl. Kommilitonen zum christl. Glauben bekehrt und getauft. Er identifizierte das Christentum mit einer puritanisch-gesetzlichen Ethik und litt daher zunehmend an einem Sündenbewußt…

Doshisha University

(267 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] in Kyoto, one of the oldest and the largest Christian universities in Japan. In 1875 Joh Neesima (1843–1890) founded Doshisha English School with the cooperation of the American missionaries. Doshisha educates people with a high level of academic discipline and in the spirit of liberty and autonomy deriving from Christianity, and such an education is able to be provided by a private …

Uemura, Masahisa

(390 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] (Jan 15, 1858, Tokyo – Jan 8, 1925, Tokyo) studied Western science taught by missionaries in Yokohama. The personalities and teachings of his teachers so impressed him that he was baptized in 1873. He studied at a theological seminary, was ordained in 1880, and worked until his death as pastor of the Fujimicho Church in Tokyo. He was a member of the Nippon Kirisuto Kyokai (“Church of Christ in Japan”), which stood in the Presbyterian and Reformed tradition (Presbyterians) but kept…

Uchimura, Kanzō

(430 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] (Mar 23, 1861, Tokyo – Mar 28, 1930, Tokyo). As the son of a samurai family, Uchimura grew up with an ethical orientation shaped by Confucianism and a sense of responsibility for his country. In 1877 he entered Sapporo agricultural college, where through the influence of Christian fellow students he was converted to the Christian faith and baptized. He identified Christianity with a legalistic Puritan ethics and suffered increasingly from a sense of sin. In 1884 he went to the Uni…

Kagawa Toyohiko

(284 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1888, Kobe – Apr 23, 1960, Tokyo). Kagawa was baptized by an American missionary in 1904. In 1909 he began his own missionary work in the slums of Kobe, where he preached the gospel to people suffering from the dehumanizing results of poverty. In 1917, after studying at Princeton University and Theological Seminary, he led workers' and peasants' movements to establish human rights, with a view to putting the redemptive love of Christ into practice. In 1923, at the time of…

Perfect Liberty Kyodan

(319 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] In 1941 more than 30 denominations in Japan (IV) united to form the Perfect Liberty Kyodan, the United Church of Christ in Japan. This union was motivated by the quest for unity ¶ in Christ but also by capitulation to the growing pressure of the government on religious bodies during the war years. After World War II, the Kyodan renewed itself as a democratic institution and in 1954 adopted an authoritative confession of faith (III, 6.a) consisting of the Apostles’ Creed with a foreword reflecting Protestant teach…

Japanese Missions

(439 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] Protestant missions overseas were closely related in Japan to the history of Japanese expansion and aggression in Asia. Several churches limited their mission overseas to Japanese residents. The Congregational Church in Japan, however, took the colonization of the Korean Peninsula in 1910 as an opportunity for mission among Koreans (Korea). It aimed partly to assimilate them to the Japanese nation. Antagonistic voices were ignored. The Korean Independent Movement from Mar 1, 1919,…

Mukyōkai (Nonchurch Movement)

(417 words)

Author(s): Dohi, Akio
[German Version] (Japanese: mu, “not,” and kyōkai, “church”). The Nonchurch movement was founded by K. Uchimura, whose serious quest as a Japanese to believe in Christ brought him into conflict with American missionaries and established churches. In 1900 he began to publish a monthly magazine, Seishono kenkyū (“Biblical Studies”), and with Sunday Bible study groups encouraged evangelism and fellowship with like-minded individuals. He called these groups mukyōkai. In his view, there was a sharp distinction between the community of believers and the institutiona…

Japan

(7,003 words)

Author(s): Pye, Michael | Dohi, Akio | Thöle, Reinhard | Repp, Martin
[German Version] I. General Facts – II. History and Culture – III. History of Religion – IV. History of Christianity – V. Orthodox Church – VI. Japanese Religions, Missiology I. General Facts The Japanese archipelago ( nippon rettō) consists of four main islands and several smaller ones with a total area of 373,534 km2. Honshū, the largest island by far (227,414 km2), is the country's geographical middle. All the political power centers of Japanese history (Nara, Kyōto, Kamakura, and Edo/Tokyo) are situated here. Owing to its proximity to the southe…