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Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān

(15,573 words)

Author(s): Doorn-Harder, Nelly van
Since the earliest days of Islam, the Qurʾān has been considered the foundation of all knowledge and moral behavior. Originally, its study and transmission took place via lessons and sermons in the mosque from which the informal educational model of madrasa schools developed, as well as the master-student model, where students sought out teachers for their particular knowledge and studied with them for varying lengths of time. These two models formed a more or less uniform system that lasted for over a thousand years and actually stil…

Ziyāra

(17,996 words)

Author(s): Meri J.W. | Ende, W. | Doorn-Harder, Nelly van | Touati,Houari | Sachedina, Abdulaziz | Et al.
(a., pl. ziyārāt ), pious visitation, pilgrimage to a holy place, tomb or shrine. ¶ 1. In the central and eastern Arab lands during the pre-modern period. Unlike the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ [ q.v.], the canonical pilgrimage to Mecca, and the lesser pilgrimage, the ʿumra [ q.v.], the ziyāra lacked the authority of Scripture. Mediaeval Arabic and Hebrew sources frequently refer to Jews and Christians making a ziyāra to tombs and shrines of holy persons (cf. J.W. Meri, Sacred journeys to sacred precincts. The cult of saints among Muslims and Jews in medieval Syria , D. Phil, thes…

Ziyāra

(19,261 words)

Author(s): Meri, J. W. | Meri, G. W. | Doorn-Harder, Nelly van | Touati, Houari | Sachedina Abdulaziz | Et al.
, (a., pi. ziyārāt), visite pieuse, pèlerinage à un lieu saint, un tombeau ou un mausolée. 1. Pays arabes du centre et de l’Est, avant 1800 2. Pays arabes du centre, de 1800 à nos jours 3. Égypte, chez les Coptes 4. Mag̲h̲rib 5. Perse/Iran et autres pays s̲h̲īʿites 6. Pays turcs, notamment Balkans et Asie Centrale 7. Inde musulmane 8. Indonésie 9. Centrafrique et Afrique Occidentale 10. Corne de l’Afrique 1. Pays arabes du centre et de l’Est, avant 1800. A la différence du ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ [ q.v.], pèlerinage canonique à La Mecque, et du pèlerinage de moindre importance, la ʿumra [ q.v.], la ziyāra ne b…