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Ibn al-Zayyāt al-Tādilī

(2,049 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Al-Tādilī (d. 627/1229–30 or 628/1230–1), known as Ibn al-Zayyāt, was a Moroccan qāḍī and scholar renowned for his hagiographical work al-Tashawwuf ilā rijāl al-taṣawwuf. 1. Life His full name is Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf b. Yaḥyā b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Tādilī. He was born in the region of Tādla during the second half of the sixth/twelfth century and died in Marrakech. He did not attract the attention of such later authors as al-Bādisī (d. after 722/1322) and Ibn Qunfudh (d. 810/1407–8), but they nevertheless used al-Tashawwuf in their writings. Al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) devoted some…
Date: 2020-12-18


(1,412 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Darqāwa or Darqāwiyya is a Moroccan Ṣūfī order (or brotherhood, ṭarīqa, lit., “path”) that attracted devotees also in other Arab countries such as Algeria, Egypt (especially in the city of Ṭanṭā), Tunisia, and Libya. It also became popular in the Ḥijāz, particularly in Mecca and Medina, and has spread as far as Iraq. In Tripoli, it became known as al-Madaniyya, after Muḥammad b. Ḥamza b. Ẓāfir al-Madanī (d. 1847), who introduced there the principles of Muḥammad al-Arabī al-Darqāwī in 1820. The order was founded at the end of the twelfth/eighteenth century by Mawlāy al-ʿArab…
Date: 2020-12-18

 Al-ʿawāṣim min al-qawāṣim

(522 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Protections from catastrophes Ibn al-ʿArabī Date: 1144 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is concerned with kalām, and contains often very aggressive criticisms of those with whom Ibn al-ʿArabī disagrees. He makes clear his absolute disagreement with the philosophers, emphasizing that rational thought must be in harmony with revelation, because through the Qur’an God has solved every problem and every doubt. A detail of the book concerns a reminiscence of Ibn al-ʿArabī’s time in Jerusalem, where he encountered many debating circles. In one he…

 Risālat mīzān al-ṣidq al-mufarriq min ahl al-bāṭil wa-ahl al-ḥaqq

(195 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Qaṣīda dāliyya fī maʿānī Risālat mīzān al-ṣidq al-mufarriq min ahl al-bāṭil wa-ahl al-ḥaqq The balance of truth which separates the people of wrong from the people of rightPoem rhyming in d about the meanings of The balance of truth which separates the people of wrong from the people of right Al-Yaḥṣubī Date: Between about 1120 and 1157 Original Language: Arabic Description The work is not extant. Its title indicates that it clarified the difference between Muslims, who represent right ( ahl al-ḥaqq), and Christians, who represent wrong ( ahl al-bāṭil). Ibn Khayr says that it was an…

Ibn al-ʿArabī

(702 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Maʿāfirī Date of Birth: 31 March 1076 Place of Birth: Seville Date of Death: 1147-48; 1148-49; 22 July 1148 Place of Death: Magīla or Ra’s al-Mā’, Morocco Biography Abū Bakr ibn al-ʿArabī was the son of Abū Muḥammad ibn al-ʿArabī, a courtier in Seville of the Banū ʿAbbād, rulers of one of the most important of the taifa kingdoms. When he was 17, with the Almoravids threatening to overthrow the Banū ʿAbbād, he left with his father on a journey ( riḥla) to the Middle East. He remained there for some time, and the experience …

 Al-radd ʿalā al-Naṣārā

(239 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Refutation of the Christians Al-Yaḥṣubī Date: Before about 1120 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not survived. Meier, ‘Ṭāhir aṣ-Ṣadafī vergessene Schrift’, offers some information about the circumstances in which it was written, though without mentioning sources. It appears that, in a battle against the Christian forces of the north, al-Yaḥṣubī fell from his horse and was captured, but he was then saved by fellow Muslims through God’s miraculous intervention. When his Jewish personal secret…


(475 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Masarra ibn Khalaf ibn al-Faraj (or ibn Faraj ibn Khalaf) al-Yaḥṣubī al-Shantamarī Date of Birth: 1077-78 Place of Birth: Possibly in Santa María del Algarve (Portugal) Date of Death: 28 October 1157 Place of Death: Cordova Biography According to Ibn al-Zubayr, al-Yaḥṣubī was a descendant of Abū l-Ṣabāḥ, an Arab emir and one of the first conquerors of al-Andalus. Although the sources do not indicate with certainty whether Santa María del Algarve was  his birthplace, they confirm that he lived in Cordova. Al-Yaḥṣubī had a thorough education in Hadith an…

 Jadhwat al-muqtabis fī ta’rīkh ʿulamā’ al-Andalus

(745 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Jadhwat al-muqtabisA firebrand for the seeker of illumination about the history of the scholars of al-Andalus, A firebrand for the seeker of illumination Al-Ḥumaydī Date: After 1056-57 Original Language: Arabic Description Jadhwat al-muqtabis is a biographical dictionary of rulers, scholars and poets of al-Andalus. It includes an historical introduction to al-Andalus from the Muslim conquest up to 1145-46. According to the accounts of its composition, al-Ḥumaydī wrote it from memory alone. He himself says in the introduction that he wrote at the reques…


(422 words)

Author(s): El Hour, Rachid
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Naṣr Futūḥ al-Azdī l-Ḥumaydī l-Ẓāhirī Date of Birth: Before 1029 Place of Birth: Al-Bulayda, Majorca Date of Death: 17 December 1095 Place of Death: Baghdad Biography Al-Ḥumaydī was born on the island of Majorca, and began his education when he was only five years old. Among his teachers were Abū l-Qāsim Aṣbagh, who taught him in 1035-36, Abū Zayd al-Qayrawānī, who taught him his famous Risāla and the Mukhtaṣar al-Mudawwana (‘The abridgement of the Mudawwana’), and Ibn Ḥazm, who became his close friend. During the period of his education, al-Ḥumaydī t…