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 Maqāla fī l-qiyāma

(229 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on resurrection Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description This treatise is only known through an extract or epitome found in Chapter 63 of al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl’s Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn. That extract outlines three main issues concerning resurrection: its necessity, its definition, and its delights. See Samir, ‘Addenda’, pp. 305-6, for a detailed analysis of the content of the extract, where he notes amongst other things that al-Muʾtaman disagrees with Ibn al-Ṭayyib’s thought…

 Al-kalām fī l-ittiḥād

(637 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Discourse on the Union Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description The original text consisted of at least four sections, but only two and a half have been preserved, making up three pages in the printed edition. In the introductory section, Ibn al-Tayyib discusses the various types of ‘one’ – he distinguishes 12 sorts (cf. Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, who notes six in Maqāla fī l-tawḥīd ʿalā madhhab al-Naṣārā; see Samir, ‘Bibliographie’, p. 207). In chapter 16, §§ 25-27 of Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn (ed. Wadi), al-Muʾtaman quotes the passage in whic…

 Kitāb fī l-tawḥīd

(142 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on the Unity [of God] Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description This work may have served as an apology for the Christian doctrine of God.  Significance Only one manuscript is known, now inaccessible. However, the existence of this title once again confirms Ibn al-Ṭayyib’s strong interest in the doctrine of God and his desire to affirm the specifically Christian conception of God. Manuscripts MS Aleppo, Jibrāʾīl Asyūn Collection (inaccessible MS in private collection; see Sbath, Fihris i, p. 24, no. 150) Editions & Translations - S…

 Title unknown

(580 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Work in fourteen chapters Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description Two separate extracts from a work in fourteen chapters by Ibn al-Ṭayyib appear in chapters 11 and 19 of Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn by al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl, though he was not aware of its title. The extract in chapter 11 (just over two pages in the edition) explains and clarifies various key terms and concepts regarding the Trinity, and then goes on to discuss the Union ( ittiḥād) of God and humanity in Christ, whilst that in chapter 19 (seven pages long) consists of …

 Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya

(809 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
The paradise of Christianity Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: After 1018 Original Language: Arabic Description Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya is a complete commentary on the Bible. The beginning of the introduction to the work is lost, but in the section that survives Ibn al-Ṭayyib launches a stinging attack on his ecclesiastical contemporaries. In this same section, he implies that his sources are not Arabic, and they are therefore presumably Syriac. Indeed, Sanders has noted Syriacisms in the language of the commentary ( Commentaire, text vol., pp. ii-iii). Ibn al-Ṭayyib also states that the…

 Title unknown

(716 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Commentary on the Psalms Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown, but before the composition of Firdaws al-Naṣrāniyya Original Language: Arabic Description Thus far, only two portions of Ibn al-Ṭayyib’s Commentary on the Psalms have been critically edited, and these in unpublished dissertations. Graf’s description of the work, however, is fairly detailed. He states that the Psalms themselves were translated from the Syriac and gives the impression that the exegetical style is similar to that of the other exegetical works. Historical com…

Ibn al-Ṭayyib

(2,833 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Abū l-Faraj ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Ṭayyib Date of Birth: Unknown; probably last quarter of 10th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Baghdad Date of Death: Probably October 1043 Place of Death: Unknown; probably Baghdad Biography Ibn al-Ṭayyib was one of the greatest polymaths of his era. He was a prolific philosopher and an important theologian, and he remains the foremost biblical exegete in Arabic. All of this was achieved whilst he was practicing and teaching medicine and serving as a priest and administrator for the Church o…

 Maqāla fī l-uṣūl al-dīniyya

(675 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Al-uṣūl al-dīniyya al-rabbāniyyaTreatise on the foundations of the religion, The foundations of the religion of our Lord Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Before 1018 Original Language: Arabic Description This work is no longer extant, but in the introduction to his Commentary on the Gospels (see above), Ibn al-Ṭayyib lists the subjects of the work as follows (e.g. MS London, BL or. 3201 no. 15, 9v; the edition of Manqariyūs, p. 37 is unreliable here): proofs of the non-eternity of the world, the unity of God, the Trinity and the Union; that the Law…

 Kitāb al-ittiḥād

(558 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on the union Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description In the eighth chapter of his compilation Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn, al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl includes the eleventh and fourteenth chapters of a treatise by Ibn al-Ṭayyib entitled Kitāb al-ittiḥād, otherwise lost. These extracts fill around 30 pages in the edition. Ibn al-Ṭayyib’s chapter 11 (chap. 8, §§ 126-78 in Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn, ed. Wadi) reveals the Christological theories on the Union (of divinity and humanity in Christ, i.e. the Incarnation) of var…

 Maqāla mukhtaṣara fī l-aqānīm wa-l-jawhar, wa-anna l-fiʿl li-l-jawhar

(231 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Brief treatise on the hypostases and substance, and the fact that action pertains to the substance Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description This brief work (two printed pages) comprises an introduction and two parts. In the first part, Ibn al-Ṭayyib argues that action ( al-fiʿl) pertains to the divine substance ( al-jawhar), not to the attributes ( ṣifāt), so the substance is one. The second part argues that there is no hierarchy among the hypostases. Significance This is another treatise in which Ibn al-Ṭayyib emphasizes the uni…

 Maqāla fī l-tawba

(549 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on repentance Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description This was a work in 14 chapters, although only 13 have been preserved. Chapters three to seven are missing in the principal manuscript, which consists of nine folios. However, chapters three to six are preserved in chapter 54, §§ 2-55 of Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn by al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl (ed. Wadi), so only chapter seven is still lost. The contents of these chapters are as follows: 1. On the basis of reward and punishment for Christians. 2. On the reason why God grants…

 Maqāla fī l-tathlīth

(415 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on the Trinity Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: Unknown; before October 1043 Original Language: Arabic Description This is a substantial treatise (eight pages in Troupeau’s edition) divided into an introduction, seven chapters, and a conclusion on the following subjects (see Samir, ‘Bibliographie’, pp. 205-6 and Troupeau, ‘Le traité sur l’Unité’, pp. 72-73): 1. Christianity is different from other religions because it appeals both to the learned (through reason) and to the uneducated (through miracles), whereas Ju…

 Title unknown

(1,405 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Commentary on the Gospels Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: 1018 Original Language: Arabic Description In the author’s introduction to the Commentary on the Gospels (the work does not seem to have a fixed Arabic appellation), he states that he is producing this work in order to preserve the Syriac heritage at a time when a knowledge of the language is dying out in Iraq (ed. Manqariyūs, p. 36; and see, e.g., MS BL – Or. 3201 no. 15, f. 9r). It is, then, largely but not exclusively a work of compilation. Chrysostom, Ephrem, and The…

 Maqāla fī l-tathlīth wa-l-tawḥīd

(507 words)

Author(s): Faultless, Julian
Treatise on the Trinity and the Unity Ibn al-Ṭayyib Date: After 1018 Original Language: Arabic Description The subject matter of this substantial treatise (seven pages in Troupeau’s edition) can be divided into ten sections (see Troupeau, ‘Le traité sur la Trinité’, pp. 105-6): 1. God is one in His essence and multiple in His hypostases. 2. One can argue that the attributes are three by textual argument. 3. Or one can do so by rational argument. 4. One could object that there are more than three attributes and …