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Hermann, Gottfried

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German philologist. Born Leipzig 28. 11. 1772, died there 31. 12. 1848. Studied law and philology at Leipzig from 1786. 1793 MA in artes liberales, 1794 habil. at Univ. of Leipzig. 1797 prof. ext. in philosophy, 1803 prof. of eloquence, Leipzig. After refusing an appointment to Kiel in 1809, prof. of poetry in Leipzig. Work and influence Friedrich Wolfgang Reiz acquainted H. with rationalist, empiricist philology in the tradition of Richard Bentley. Christian Gottfried Schütz introduced him to the critical textual study of Aeschylus, which became H.’s…

Gernet, Louis-Jules

(585 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
French Hellenist and anthropologist. Born Paris 28. 11. 1882, died there 29. 1. 1962. 1902–1906 studied classical philology and law at the École normale supérieure; 1907–1910 studied at the Fondation Thiers. 1910–1920 lecturer at military school at La Flèche; 1921–1948 prof. ord. in classical philology at Algiers. 1949–1954 lecturer in legal sociology at the École pratique des hautes études in Paris; 1950–1952 president of the Institut français de sociologie, and 1949–1961 director of the Année sociologique. Work and influence Influenced by the historical school of Numa Fu…

Buttmann, Philipp Karl

(533 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German philologist and pedagogue. Born 5. 12. 1764 in Frankfurt a. M., died Berlin 21. 6. 1829 (orig. Huguenot family name Boudemont). Studied from 1782 in Göttingen, from 1786 in Strasbourg. 1787 tutor to the princely heir of Anhalt-Dessau. Assistant from 1789, librarian and secretary from 1796 of the Königliche Bibliothek in Berlin; 1800–1808 teacher at the Joachimsthalsches Gymnasium, Berlin. Member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin from 1806. 1808 refused appointment to the Univ. of Landshut; from 1810 member of the “foundation committee” for Berlin Univ., secretary at the ¶ Aca…

Bachofen, Johann Jakob

(784 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Swiss legal historian and classical scholar. Born 22. 12. 1815 in Basel to a wealthy family, died there 25. 11. 1887. Studied law and classics at Basel 1834, Berlin 1835–1837 (with August Boeckh, Karl Ferdinand Ranke, Karl Lachmann, Friedrich Carl von Savigny), Göttingen 1837/38 (with Gustav Hugo and Karl Otfried Müller); degree 1839 at Basel with legal examination (diss.: De Romanorum iudiciis civilibus). Practical legal training 1839/40 in Paris and London. 1841 appointed prof. of Roman law at Basel; declined position and salary but continued to teach as…

Lehrs, Karl

(471 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist. Born Königsberg 14. 1. 1802, died there 9. 6. 1878. Studied classics at Univ. of Königsberg from 1818, doctorate there in 1823. 1823 schoolteacher at Danzig, 1824 at Marienwerder, from 1825 at Königsberg. 1831 habil. on Aristarchus; from 1845 prof. ord. in classical philology at Univ. of Königsberg. Work and influence L.’ teachers were Karl Lachmann at the Königsberg Friedrichskollegium and Christian August Lobeck at the univ. there. Following them, he regarded language as the only key to the understanding of Greek cul…

Müller, Karl Otfried

(898 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist and archaeologist of art. Born Brieg (Silesia) 28. 8. 1797, died 1. 10. 1840 at Athens, buried on the Agoraios Kolonos. From 1804 studied classics etc. at Breslau, 1816–1818 classical philology at Berlin with Philipp Karl Buttmann and August Boeckh; 1817 doctorate. 1818 schoolteacher at Breslau. 1819 appointed prof. ext. in classical philology and archaeology of art at Univ. of Göttingen; 1823 prof. ord. there. 1832 Hofrat and member of the Göttinger Sozietät der Wissenschaften. From 1835 also prof. of eloquence. 1839 travelled to Italy and Greece. Work a…

Pasquali, Giorgio

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Italian classical philologist. Born Rome 29. 4. 1885, died Belluno 9. 10. 1952. 1907 graduation ( laurea) from Univ. of Rom; 1908–1909 studied at Berlin and Göttingen. 1910 lecturer in Greek literature at Rome. 1911/12 prof. ext. at Messina; 1912–1915 prof. ext. at Göttingen, doctorate there 1913. 1915–1920 prof. ext. at Florence; 1924 prof. ord. in Greek there. From 1930, teacher at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa. Career, works and influence The outbreak of World War I marked a turning-point in P.’s life and career. He had taken his doctorate at Göttingen in 1913 ( Quaestiones Calli…

Wolf, Friedrich August

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist. Born Hainrode 15. 2. 1759, died Marseille 8. 8. 1824. Matriculation at Univ. of Göttingen 1777; from 1779 teaching at Ilfeld and rector at Osterode. 1783 appointed to Halle as prof. ord. in philosophy and pedagogics; 1784 made prof. eloquentiae et poeseos at his own request. Closure of Univ. of Halle 1806, moved to Berlin. 1809/10 involved in the foundation of Berlin Univ., but refused a professorship. Taught as member of the Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften (1799 external member, from 1808 full member, from 1812 honorary member). 1808–18…

Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb

(478 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist and archaeologist. Born Grünberg (Giessen) 4. 11. 1784, died Bonn 17. 12. 1868. Studied theology at the Univ. of Giessen from 1801, dissertation there 1803. 1804 lecturer at Faculty of Theology there. Tour of Italy 1806. From 1808, prof. of Greek literature and archaeology at Univ. of Giessen. 1816–1818 prof. of Greek literature at the Univ. of Göttingen, from 1819 at the Univ. of Bonn. Also at Bonn, senior librarian of the newly-founded univ. library. Travels to Greece and Italy 1841–1843. Work and influence W., who from 1806 to 1808 was a private tut…

Marchesi, Concetto

(474 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Italian classical philologist, politician and writer. Born Catania 1. 2. 1878, died Rome 12. 2. 1957. From 1895, studied lettere at Catania; 1899 graduated ( laurea) in Florence, then worked as schoolteacher in Pisa [10]. 1915–1923 prof. of Latin literature at Univ. of Messina. 1921 joined the Italian Communist Party. 1923 second univ. degree, in law; 1923 appointed to Univ. of Padua; 1928 member of the Accademia dei Lincei. 1931 took oath of allegiance to Fascism. 1943 participated in activities of anti-Fascist parties; September 1943 appointed rector of Univ. …

Kerényi, Karl

(619 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Hungarian-Swiss classical philologist and religious scholar. Born Temesvár (then Austria-Hungary, now Timişoara, Romania) 19. 1. 1897, died Kilchberg (canton of Zurich, Switzerland) 14. 4. 1973. 1919 doctorate in classical philology at Univ. of Budapest (on Plato and Longinus). From 1920, studies at Greifswald, Berlin and Heidelberg, teachers Hermann Diels, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Eduard Norden, Eduard Meyer and Franz Boll. 1927 habil. in religious history at Budapest [1]. From 1924,…

Cornford, Francis Macdonald

(547 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
British classical philologist and historian of philosophy. Born Eastbourne 27. 2. 1874, died 3. 1. 1943 in Cambridge. 1894–1897 studied classical philology and ancient philosophy at Trinity College, Cambridge; 1899 doctorate and Fellow of Trinity; from 1902 assistant lecturer; lecturer from 1904; Laurence Prof. of Ancient Philosophy there from 1931. Work and influence In his first major book [1], C. showed Thucydides’ dependence on a traditional historical idea, especially that of tragic fate. The work was dedicated to Jane Ellen Harrison, of whos…

Usener, Hermann

(823 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist and religious scholar. Born Weiburg (Hessen) 23. 10. 1834, died Bonn 21. 10. 1905. 1853–1857 studied classical philology at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Bonn; 1858 doctorate at Bonn with Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl and Christian August Brandis. 1858–1861 teacher at the Joachimsthalsches Gymnasium in Berlin. 1861–1863 prof. ext. at Bern; from 1863 prof. of classical philology at Greifswald. 1866 appointed to succeed Ritschl at the Univ. of Bonn. Retired 1902. Work and influence In his work, U. achieved a synthesis of the trends and methods that …

Humboldt, Wilhelm von

(1,293 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German scholar and statesman. Born Wilhelm Christian Carl Ferdinand von H., Potsdam 22. 6. 1767, died Berlin 8. 4. 1835. 1787 studied (law) at Frankfurt an der Oder and general studies at Göttingen 1788–1790. 1797–1801 lived at Paris; 1802–1808 Prussian Resident at the Holy See in Rome. 1809/10 privy councillor and director of the culture and education department at the Prussian Ministry of the Interior, also founder of the Berlin Univ. 1810–1819 Prussian diplomat in the decisive period of the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna and thereafter. Retired to private life 1820. Writings…

Lobeck, Christian August

(509 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
German classical philologist and linguist. Born Naumburg 5. 6. 1781, died Königsberg 25. 8. 1860. 1797 studied law at Jena, then theology until 1799 and classical studies at Leipzig; 1802 philology habil. at Wittenberg. Adjunct of the faculty of philology and curator of the Univ. Library until 1807, then deputy rector and rector of the Lyzeum at Wittenberg. From 1814, prof. of classical philology, archaeology and ancient history at Königsberg [6. 167–181]. Work and influence At the Univ. of Leipzig, L. studied with Gottfried Hermann, with whom he shared the conviction …

Welcker, Friedrich Gottlieb

(427 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Archäologe. Geb. am 4. 11. 1784 in Grünberg (Kreis Gießen), gest. am 17. 12. 1868 in Bonn. Ab 1801 Studium der Theologie an der Univ. Gießen, dort 1803 Diss.; 1804 Dozent an der Theologischen Fakultät ebda; 1806 Italienreise. Ab 1808 Lehrstuhl der griech. Literatur und Arch. an der Univ. Gießen; 1816–1818 Prof. für griech. Literatur an der Univ. Göttingen; ab 1819 an der Univ. Bonn; dort auch Oberbibliothekar der neu gegr. Univ.-Bibl. 1841–1843 Reisen nach Griechenland und Italien. Werk und Wirkung W., 1806 bis 1808 Hofmeister im Haus Wilhelm von Hum…

Buttmann, Philipp Karl

(498 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Dt. Philologe und Pädagoge. Geb. am 5. 12. 1764 in Frankfurt a. M., gest. am 21. 6. 1829 in Berlin (ursprgl. hugenottischer Familiename Boudemont). Studium ab 1782 in Göttingen, ab 1786 in Straßburg. 1787 Erzieher des Erbprinzen von Anhalt-Dessau; ab 1789 Hilfsarbeiter, ab 1796 Bibliothekar-Sekretär an der Königlichen Bibl. in Berlin; 1800–1808 Lehrer am Joachimsthalschen Gymnasium ebda. Ab 1806 Mitglied der Akad. der Wiss. in Berlin; 1808 Ablehnung eines Rufs an die Univ. Landshut; ab 1810 Mitg…

Usener, Hermann

(742 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Religionswissenschaftler. Geb. am 23. 10. 1834 in Weilburg (Hessen), gest. am 21. 10. 1905 in Bonn. 1853–1857 Studium der Klass. Phil. in Heidelberg, Göttingen und Bonn; 1858 Prom. in Bonn bei Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl und Christian August Brandis. 1858–1861 Lehrer am Joachimsthalschen Gymnasium in Berlin; 1861–1863 ao.Prof. in Bern; ab 1863 Prof. für Klass. Phil. in Greifswald; 1866 Berufung an die Univ. Bonn als Ritschls Nachfolger; 1902 Emeritierung. Werk und Wirkung In seinem Werk erreichte U. eine Synthese der Tendenzen und Methoden, d…

Müller, Karl Otfried

(803 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Kunstarchäologe. Geb. am 28. 8. 1797 in Brieg in Schlesien, gest. am 1. 10. 1840 in Athen, begraben auf dem Kolonoshügel. Ab 1804 Studium u. a. der Alt.wiss. in Breslau, 1816–1818 der Klass. Phil. in Berlin bei Philipp Karl Buttmann und August Boeckh; 1817 Prom. 1818 Gymnasiallehrer in Breslau. 1819 Berufung als ao.Prof. für Klass. Phil. und Kunstarch. an die Univ. Göttingen; 1823 dort o.Prof. 1832 Hofrat und Mitglied in der Göttinger Sozietät der Wiss.; ab 1835 auch Prof. für Eloquenz. 1839 Reise nach Italien und Griechenland. Werk und Wirkung M.s früher To…

Marchesi, Concetto

(457 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera
Ital. Klass. Philologe, Politiker und Schriftsteller. Geb. am 1. 2. 1878 in Catania, gest. am 12. 2. 1957 in Rom. Ab 1895 Studium der Lettere in Catania; 1899 Abschluss (Laurea) in Florenz, danach Gymnasiallehrer in Pisa [10]. 1915–1923 Prof. für lat. Literatur an der Univ. Messina. 1921 Beitritt zur ital. Kommunistischen Partei. 1923 zweiter Univ.-Abschluss in Jura; 1923 Berufung an die Univ. Padua; 1928 Mitglied der Accad. dei Lincei. 1931 Eid auf den Faschismus; 1943 Teilnahme an den Aktivitä…
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