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Ghulām Aḥmad, Mīrzā

(1,736 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Yohanan
Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad (late 1830s–1908) was the founder and first leader of the Aḥmadiyya movement in Islam. He was born in the Panjābī village of Qādiyān. For his biography we depend mostly on his own accounts, supplemented by the extensive biographies written by some leading members of the movement. This material has a distinct hagiographical tinge and strives to depict Ghulām Aḥmad’s birth and childhood in a way compatible with his later spiritual claim. Much of it is therefore relevant to the ana…
Date: 2020-09-16


(3,148 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Yohanan
The Arabic term dhimma means “treaty” or “obligation.” The Qurʾān uses the word in its denunciation of idolaters who do not fulfil their obligations to the believers (Q 9:8, 10). In prophetic tradition (ḥadīth) and in Islamic legal literature the term dhimma is used for the obligation of Muslims in general and of Muslim rulers in particular to grant protection to non-Muslims living under their rule. The religious communities granted this protection were designated “protected people” ( ahl al-dhimma, or dhimmīs). In most periods of Islamic history, dhimmīs were allowed to continue …
Date: 2020-09-16