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Aleander, Hieronymus

(487 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Aleandro, Girolamo/Jerôme; Italian Humanist, philologist and cardinal. Born 13. 2. 1480 in Motta di Livenza (Treviso), died 1. 2. 1542 in Rome. Studied medicine, philology and theology at Padua. Worked as a diplomat in the service of the Papacy from 1501; assumed professorship in Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Chaldaean at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1508, becoming rector there in 1513. In Paris again from 1516 and Liège in ecclesiastical service. Director of the Biblioteca Vaticana in Rome from 1517; took part in the Diet of Worms in 1521; Archbishop of Brindisi 1524; Cardinal 1538. Work and influence The son of a noble doctor, A. took up medical studies, but later turned to philology and theology at Padua. Beside Greek and Latin, he also mastered Hebrew and Chaldaean. In Venice, he was a close associate of the printer and publisher Aldus Manutius [7. 223]; it was also here that he met Erasmus of Rotterdam – a friendship that later foundered, however, on A.’s irreconcilable hostility to Martin Luther. From 1501, A. undertook various diplomatic missions on behalf of Pope Alexan…

Enoch von Ascoli

(415 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Enoch Asculanus; Italian Humanist. Born c. 1400 at Ascoli Piceno, died there c. 1457. Educated at Florence; teaching (poetry and rhetoric) at Perugia c. 1440. Tutor to the sons of Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence. Thereafter working at Rome in the service of Pope Nicholas V. 1451–1455 searching for manuscripts in Northern and Eastern Europe. Returned to Rome in 1455 with the Codex Herfeldensis. Works and influence…

Leoniceno, Niccolò

(479 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Nicolaus Leoninus/Leonicenus or Nicolo Lonigo. Italian physician, philologist and Humanist. Born Lonigo (near Vicenza) 1428, died Ferrara 1524. Studied medicine and philosophy at Padua around 1446, awarded doctorate 1453, then journey to England, where he stayed for an unknown duration. Probably teaching at Venice between 1462 and 1464, then from 1464 at the Univ. of Ferrara (mathematics, philosophy, theoretical medicine), and for a time at Bologna in 1508. Work and influence L. was born into a distinguished family: his father was a doctor and his mother Maddalena …

Valla, Giorgio

(638 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Italian scholar, mathematician and physician. Born Piacenza 1447 (or earlier), died 23. or 24. 2. 1500 in Venice. 1457–1462 educated at the court of the Prince of Vigoleno. From 1462, studied Greek in Milan, from 1464/65 also mathematics and medicine at Pavia. 1467–1479 teacher of rhetoric and Greek at Milan, Pavia and Genoa, 1480–1484 only Pavia. 1485–1500 prof. of poetry in Venice at the Scuola Grande di San Marco; 1496 eight-month political imprisonment. Career V., who according to his son was a distant relation of the more famous Lorenzo Valla [5], was born into a…

Barbaro, Ermolao

(709 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Hermolaus Barbarus; Italian Humanist and philologist. Born 21. 5. 1453 in Venice, died 14. 6. 1493 in Rome. Studied at Rome and Padua from 1462; doctorate Padua 1474 in the artes, 1477 in civil and ecclesiastical law. 1477 prof. of philosophy at Padua. Various missions for the Republic of Venice to 1491; banished from Venice 1491. Background and work B. came from a family of Venetian diplomats and scholars. His grandfather, Francesco, had translated Plutarch; his uncle Ermolao the Elder had translated Aesop’s fables and a Vita Sancti Athanasii. B.’s nephew was Daniele Barbaro. B. h…

Pilato, Leonzio

(452 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Leontinus/Leo Pilatus; Italian Humanist and translator. Date of birth unknown; died on a sea voyage to Venice 1366. 1341 in Naples, c. 1350–1358 on Crete. Translating Homer from 1358. 1360–1362 prof. of Greek at Florence. Travelled to Constantinople 1363. Life and works P. grew up in Calabria, where a few pockets of the Greek language had survived, but he described himself as a Greek of Thessaly. His teacher was Barlaam of Calabria. He spent some time at Naples around 1341, where he had contact with Paolo da Perugia, librarian to Robert…

Poliziano, Angelo

(1,517 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Agnolo Ambrogini, Latin Angelus Politianus; Politian. Italian Humanist and poet. Born Montepulciano 14. 7. 1454, died Florence 29. 9. 1494. Studied Humaniora in Florence from 1469; supported from 1473 by Lorenzo de’ Medici, who took him into his household in 1475 as tutor and private secretary. Holy orders 1477; thereafter various ecclesiastical appointments (e.g. 1485 canon at Florence Cathedral). 1479/80 sojourn in northern Italy; 1480 appointed prof. of Latin, Greek and rhetoric at Florence. Career Il Poliziano (called after the town of his birth, in Latin Mons Politianus) lost his notary father Benedetto in 1462 when he was murdered in the course of political disput…

Cola di Rienzo

(768 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Also C. di Rienzi; Italian Humanist and politician. Born Nicola di Lorenzo c. 1313 in Anagni (Latium), died 8. 10. 1354 at Rome. Studied law at Rome from c. 1333; worked as a notary. 1343, member of a Roman delegation ¶ to Pope Clement VI. 1344 named notary to the city chamber by the Pope. Led a popular insurrection at Rome in 1347, proclaimed Tribune by the people. December 1347, excommunicated. Fled Rome. 1350 in Prague with Emperor Karl IV; 1352 extradited to Avignon; 1354 returned to Rome as senator at the behest of Pope Innocent VI. Li…

Giphanius, Obertus

(525 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Hubert van Giffen; Dutch philologist and jurist. Born Buren (Gelderland) 1534, died Prague 1604. Studied philology at Leuven, jurisprudence at Orléans, Bourges (under Jacques Cujas) and Paris. 1571–1582 prof. of ethics, logic and Institutiones at Strasbourg; 1583–1590 prof. of pandectics and philology at the Academia Norica in Altdorf near Nuremberg. From 1599, assessor at the Aulic Council in Prague. Life and works G. came from a family of Protestant landowners in the Dutch province of Gelderland. While still a student in 1566, he published an edition of Lucretius’ De rerum natura t…

Ceporinus, Jacobus

(414 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Wiesendanger, Jakob; Swiss philologist, Humanist and theologian. Born Dinhard (near Winterthur) 1499, died Zurich 20. 12. 1525. Studied at Cologne, Vienna and Ingolstadt. Worked as proofreader around 1521 at Basel, then from 1522 as teacher of Hebrew and Greek in Zurich. Married Elisabeth Scherer, former Dominican nun, in 1523. Work and influence J. Wiesendanger, who took the Humanist name Ceporinus (from the Greek kēpourós, ‘gardener’), attended Latin school at Winterthur in spite of his farming background, and quickly achieved brilliant Greek. He also lea…

Cusanus, Nicolaus

(1,162 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Nicholas of Kues, Nicolaus Treverensis, Nicolaus de Cusa; German Humanist and cardinal. Born Kues an der Mosel 22. 10. 1401, died Todi (Umbria) 11. 8. 1464. 1416 studied artes at Heidelberg; from 1417/18, studied ecclesiastical law at Padua, 1423 doctorate as Doctor decretorum. Returned to Germany by 1425 (Kues, Cologne). 1431–1436 took part in Council of Basel; travels to libraries; 1437 at Byzantium on behalf of the Pope. Holy orders (not earlier than) 1436. Cardinal December 1448. Prince-Bishop of Brixen from 1450. Return to Rome 1459 an appointment as curial cardinal. Background C.…

Barzizza, Gasparino

(515 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Also Gasparino di Pietrobuono, Gasparinus Barzizius Pergamensis; Italian rhetorician and philologist. Born 1360 in Bergamo or Barzizza, died 1431 at Milan. Studied grammar and rhetoric at Pavia from 1390. Prof. of Rhetoric and Grammar at Univs. of Pavia (1403–1407) and Padua (1407/08–1421), doctorate in artes at Padua 1413. Founded free Latin schools at Padua (1407) and Milan (1418); taught there and, besides univ. activity, also at schools in Ferrara, from 1421 Milan. 1414 named Apostolic Secretary by Antipope John XXIII. Took part in Council of Konstanz 1417. Work and influence B. …

Pighius, Stephanus Vinandus

(624 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Pighe/Pigge, Steven Wynants/Winand, Latin Piggius; Dutch Humanist and antiquarian. Born 1520 in Kampen, died Xanten 16. 10. 1604. Studied ancient languages at Leuven, doctorate there. 1547–1555 antiquarian studies in Italy. Secretary to Cardinal Marcello Cervini; from 1555 at Brussels, in the service of Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle. 1571–1575 travelling companion of the Crown Prince of Kleve (Cleves), visiting Vienna and Rome. Following the death of the Prince (1575) went to Xanten as a canon. Work and influence P. studied classical languages at Leuven, where he…

Cyriacus of Ancona

(578 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Cyriacus Anconitanus / Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli; Italian Humanist, traveller and epigrapher. Born c. 1391 in Ancona, died c. 1455 in Cremona. Between 1412 and 1454, travelled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt and the East. Worked as merchant, archivist, epigrapher, collector and copyist of manuscripts. Patrons included Pope Eugene IV, Cosimo de’ Medici, the Visconti and Emperor Sigismund. Background, work and influence C. came from the noble but impoverished Pizzicolli family. A commission from Cardinal Gabriele Condulmer (the future Pope Eugene IV) to renov…

Linacre, Thomas

(508 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Lynaker, Thomas; English physician and philologist. Probably born 1460, Canterbury or surroundings, died 20. 10. 1524. Schooled at Canterbury, studied at Oxford. 1487–1499 journey to Italy with stays at Florence, Rome, Venice and Padua. 1488–1490 studied at Florence with Angelo Poliziano and Demetrios Chalkokondyles. 1496 awarded a diploma of medicine at Padua. Returned to London c. 1499, where he worked as prince’s tutor at the English court and as a physician. 1518 founded the Royal College of Physicians. 1520 holy orders. Work and influence Not all phases of L.’s life are cl…

Vettori, Piero

(612 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Petrus Victorius; Italian Humanist, philosopher and philologist. Born Florence 1499, died there 8. 12. 1585. Studied mathematics and ancient languages in Florence. Before 1530, various positions in the service of the Republic of Florence; 1530–1538 studied philology and philosophy in San Casciano in Val di Pesa. 1538–1583 prof. of Latin and Greek at Florence. Life and works V. came from a noble Florentine family. He studied mathematics, astrology, physics and Greek in the city with Andrea Dazzi. He had begun studying law at Pisa in 1514, but broke off…

Guarino da Verona

(801 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Giovanni Guarini, also Guarino Veronese; Italian Humanist. Born Verona 1374/75, died Ferrara 4. 12. 1460. Studied at Verona and Padua; 1403–1408 at Constantinople with Manuel Chrysolaras. From 1412, prof. of Greek and Latin at Florence; from 1414–1419, headmaster at Venice; 1419–1429 prof. of rhetoric at Verona. From 1429 at Ferrara; princes’ tutor and headmaster there 1430–1435, from 1436 prof. of Greek. Took part in Council of Ferrara/Florence 1438. Career G. grew up in Verona, where he acquired the basis of his Humanist education. At Padua, he and Niccolò Nicc…

Alciatus, Andreas

(440 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Alciato, Andrea; Italian jurist and Humanist. Born 8. 5. 1492 in Alzate Brianza near Como, died 12. 1. 1550 in Pavia. Studied jurisprudence and classical languages in Milan, Pavia and Bologna. 1514 Doctor iuris utriusque at Ferrara. 1514–1517 active as jurist in Milan, 1519–1521 Prof. of civil law at Avignon. 1522–1550 professorships at Milan, Avignon, Bourges, Pavia, Bologna and Ferrara. Named apostolic protonotary by Pope Paul III and Comes Palatinus by Emperor Charles V, both 1546. Work and influence A.’s father, a merchant, worked as a Milanese ambassador in Venice. Hi…

Boccaccio, Giovanni

(1,508 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Italian poet and Humanist. Born Florence or Certaldo 1313, died Certaldo 21. 12. 1375. At Naples from 1326, where he studied canon law and wrote first poetry; various positions at Florence, Ravenna and Forlì 1340–1348. First meeting with Petrarch 1350; diplomatic missions for Florence between 1350 and 1365; 1373 lecture on Dante Alighieri’s Commedia in Florence. Background The illegitimate son of a merchant from Certaldo, B. was initially destined to follow in his father’s footsteps. He moved with him from Florence to Naples in 1326, soon taking up th…

Xylander, Guilielmus

(503 words)

Author(s): Gall, Dorothee
Wilhelm Holtzmann; German Humanist and philologist. Born Augsburg 26. 12. 1532, died Heidelberg 10. 2. 1576. Studied Artes and philosophy at Tübingen and Basel; 1557/58 doctorate from Basel. From 1558 prof. of Greek, from 1562 of logic at the Univ. of Heidelberg. Joined forces with Ulrich Zwingli. 1564/65 rector of the Univ. of Heidelberg. Work and influence X. (his Humanist name is a Greek translation of his German name Holzmann, ‘Woodman’), was born in poverty in Augsburg. He received support from various citizens of the city, in particular the musi…
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