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Knowledge society

(4,232 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. General All societies are also knowledge societies. As modern sociologists and ethnologists since Émile Durkheim and Claude Lévi-Strauss have argued, it is impossible to imagine sociality without language, rules, a worldview, assignment of characteristics, roles, and organization of facts, along with means of coordinating and maintaining them [19]; [10]. Knowledge therefore guides the action structures within which work, consumption, government, and culture are organized. With agricultural reclamation (of previously unused terrain) and th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Compilation

(868 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. Transmission of knowledgeIn the early modern period, compilation – the systematic assembly of knowledge already present – was considered one of the fundamental procedures in the organization of knowledge (Knowledge, organization of) and the production of scholarly texts. The theological and legal commentary literature of the Middle Ages and the early modern era, encyclopedias, the specialized compendia of various disciplines, and above all historiography, from chronicles to volumes of historical illustrations were heavily dependent on it.As an essentially o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Knowledge, organization of

(6,492 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. Object of cultural studies Parallel to the mechanization of society and its electrical, electronic, and finally digital tools of communication, and in light of 20th-century “big science” and the division of labor increasingly evident in the production of knowledge, the question of the organization of knowledge has emerged as a central theme of cultural studies. In the 1920s, Karl Mannheim sought to pursue the “existentiality” of knowledge and the role of ideology in error using the sociology of knowledge [29]. In the 1930s, Ludwik Fleck interpreted the emergence of sc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Information media

(1,863 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. System Communication of information is one of the fundamental elements of every society (Society [community]). With their contribution to informing and organizing society, information media were central to the regulation of social life. In the early modern period, the communication of information was revolutionized by printing. The transmission of information became a universally organized system – politically, economically, and scientifically – based increasingly on technological me…
Date: 2019-10-14

Intellectual

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. Terminological history and characteristics The term “intellectual” (from the Latin intellectualis, “of the understanding”) derives from the political public sphere of the late 19th century. Corresponding to the social, cultural, and political self-image (and enemy stereotype) of a growing, academic class, the figure of the intellectual, associated with autonomy and the authority to speak on behalf of the general public, became at the transition to the late modern period the incarnation of the western id…
Date: 2019-10-14

Historia literaria

(909 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. GeneralIn the 18th century, historia literaria denoted the systematic history of erudition and of scholars, that is, the entirety of scholarly literature and its authors. In the 19th century, the term in use was “literary history,” not to be confused with the new discipline of literary historiography. Historia literaria, as interpretation, categorization, and actualization of the entirety of scholarly literature, laid the groundwork for the planned communication, dissemination, and archiving o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Academic prizes

(943 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. Introduction Academic prizes were important discursive instruments of the Enlightenment. With their association with publicity, authority, and the systematic organization of knowledge (Knowledge, organization of) in the service of public information (Knowledge), they represent (even more than knowledge media such as the periodical and encyclopedia, vital then as now) the most typical hallmark of the Enlightenment public sphere.Taking up the Humanist tradition in which learned societies crowned poets (e.g. the Viennese Collegium poetarum atque …
Date: 2019-10-14

Encyclopedia

(3,517 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. IntroductionAn encyclopedia is as far as possible a complete survey of a branch of knowledge, with content arranged in a certain order of presentation. As a concise form of presenting expert knowledge and the current state of knowledge, it lies between didactics and scholarly theory, and between the popularization and the functionalization of knowledge. As an ongoing attempt at defining individual elements of a whole and so aligning knowledge and the world, it was a guiding principle of early modern knowledge culture.Martin Gierl2. ConceptThe Neolatin composite term  encyclopaed…
Date: 2019-10-14

Media, scholarly

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. DefinitionFrom the outset, scholarly media as institutionalized technological mediators of learning (Erudition) – both individually and collectively –  were anything but neutral instruments of knowledge: they were a material embodiment of the contemporary organization of knowledge (Knowledge, organization of). In the early modern period, they marked the evolution of the great process of cultural change from orality to literacy, based increasingly on print. Their nature was the basis for the de…
Date: 2019-10-14

Academy

(2,734 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
The development of formative public institutions was a central element in the history of the modern period. Next to the university, the academy as an institution played a fundamental role in the organization of knowledge and culture.  1. Concept In 387 BC, Plato had acquired a house in a cultural complex north-west of Athens, named after the Attic hero Akademos, for his philosophical school, to which the sanctuary with gymnasium, gardens, and cult sites gave its name, Akadḗmeia. Although a structured establishment with scholarch, “elders”, and “disciples”, it had no cu…
Date: 2019-10-14

Disciplines, academic

(2,079 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
1. ConceptIn the early modern period the methods, institutions, subject fields and discussion procedures of modern science took shape. Their elementary structural categorization and organizational form were the academic disciplines.Related to Greek didaskalía (“teaching,” “instruction,” “initiation”), discipline is derived from Latin discere (“learn”) and shares the same etymological root with its pedagogical counterpart, doctrine (from Lat. docere, “teach”) [4]. The semantic field of Latin disciplina with its poles of “subject,” “knowledge,” “instruction,” …
Date: 2019-10-14

Disputation, academic

(814 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin
As a test of knowledge as well as an intellectual, social, and cultural representation of the university, the academic disputation constituted the capstone of the medieval and early modern educational arch. In the early modern period, it became the starting point for the research seminar, the dissertation and Habilitation (Privatdozent), the scholarly article and criticism, and thus the modern university.In the medieval universities, the disputation was the most important type of event, alongside the  lectio or lecture. Knowledge was passed on through reading of a…
Date: 2019-10-14

Forschung

(3,968 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Gierl, Martin
1. Allgemein 1.1. BegriffFür das Streben, das vorhandene Wissen gezielt zu erweitern, gab es in der Nz. auffällig viele Bezeichnungen. Neben den gebräuchlichen lat. Begriffen explorare (»erkunden«), scrutari (»ergründen«), experiri (»erproben«) und probare (»ausprobieren«) nannten Enzyklopädien des 17. Jh.s etwa lat. aucupari, ( per) contari, requitare, rogitare, ( in) vestigare, quaerere, inquirere, sciscere, ( sci) scitari. Wer dergleichen tat, war ein scrutator, percontator, rimator, ( in) vestigator oder in- bzw. perquisitor. Aus diesen Begriffen entstanden E…
Date: 2019-11-19

Statistik

(3,100 words)

Author(s): Gierl, Martin | Behrisch, Lars | Ehmer, Josef
1. Begriff und HintergrundS. leitet sich über das Adjektiv »statistisch« vom ital. statista (»Staatsmann«) ab. Im 16. Jh., als die Verknüpfung der Wirtschaft, des Stands, des Steuer-Systems, der Verwaltung und des Militärs den Fürstenstaat langsam zum feudal-absolutistisch geordneten Finanz-Staat machte, begann die ratio status – ein Begriff, der zunächst Staatsbilanz, dann Staatsräson bedeutete – zur Leitvorstellung des Staatswesens zu werden. Theoriestiftend rief der Staatsbildungsprozess im 17. Jh. breite staatsrechtliche und wirtsch…
Date: 2019-11-19

Raum

(3,720 words)

Author(s): Beuttler, Ulrich | Pulte, Helmut | Gierl, Martin
1. Theologie und Philosophie 1.1. Frühe NeuzeitDer R. wandelte sich vom 14. bis zum 17. Jh. von einem endlichen und gegliederten zu einem unendlichen, gleichförmigen und rationalen Gebilde. In der platonischen und aristotelischen Kosmologie war die kugelförmige Abgeschlossenheit Ausdruck der Vollkommenheit des Kosmos, doch seit Nikolaus von Kues im 15. und Giordano Bruno im 16. Jh. galt der unbegrenzte bzw. unendliche R. als vollkommenes Abbild bzw. Ausfluss der Unendlichkeit Gottes [11. 117–136]. War der R. in Antike und MA das passive Prinzip des Aufnehmers von F…
Date: 2019-11-19

Zeitschrift

(4,072 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Clemens | Tischer, Matthias | Gierl, Martin
1. Definition Die Z. als expandierendes Medium, angesiedelt zwischen Buch und Zeitung und im Kontext sich ausweitender Nachrichten-Ströme, erfüllte wichtige Funktionen in der sozialen Kommunikation der nzl. Gesellschaft. Formal war die Z. gegenüber dem Buch durch stärkere Aktualität und ihre Periodizität, gegenüber der Zeitung durch ihre in programmatischen Äußerungen entwickelten Eigenansprüche gekennzeichnet. Hierzu trug der im Vergleich zur Zeitung durchschnittlich längere Umfang der einzelnen …
Date: 2019-11-19

Schriftlichkeit

(4,466 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Clemens | Hiller, Marion | Gierl, Martin
1. Schriftlichkeit und Mündlichkeit: Definition und CharakterisierungUnter Sch. werden alle Formen des Schrift-Gebrauchs, der Produktion und des Lesens gedruckter und ungedruckter Texte verstanden. Unter Mündlichkeit (= M.) bzw. Oralität werden alle Formen mündlicher Kommunikation gefasst, die ebenfalls durch grundsätzliche Eigenschaften und Potentiale charakterisiert sind.Das ältere kulturanthropologische Paradigma hob darauf ab, dass die Erkenntnis von Vergangenem, eine sichere Speicherung von Informationen und Wissen (s. u. 4.), die p…
Date: 2019-11-19

Literacy and orality

(4,916 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Clemens | Hiller, Marion | Gierl, Martin
1. Definition and characteristicsLiteracy denotes all forms of the use of writing, and the production and reading of printed and unprinted texts. Orality includes all forms of spoken communication, which are also characterized by fundamental qualities and potentials.A former paradigm of cultural anthropology held that the knowledge of the past, the secure storage of information and knowledge (see below, 4.), full-fledged bureaucratic government, and individual self-reflection were only possible through the written word. Accordin…
Date: 2019-10-14
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